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status frustration

_______________ is a form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society.

status offense

A _________ is conduct that is illegal only because a child is underage.

culture of poverty

_______________ is the view that the poor form a separate culture with separate values which sometime conflict with the majority of society.

social learning

______________ holds that a person's learning and social experiences, coupled with his or her values and expectations, determine behavior.

social process

____________ theories say an individual's relationship with critical elements of socialization is the key to understanding the onset and continuation of a delinquent career.

social structure

_______________ theories suggest that social and economic forces operating in deteriorated lower-class areas are key determinant of delinquent behavior patterns.

cumulative disadvantage

A damaged identity can result in adolescents repeating their antisocial behaviors, creating new labels and amplifying old ones; this process is known as ___________________, which is a commitment to the negative label applied.

role diffusion

______________ occurs when people
1) experience personal uncertainty
2) spread themselves too thin
3) submit to promises to get a sense of identity that they can't obtain themselves.

secret deviants

_______________ are youth who continually break the rules but are able to avoid labeling.

arousal theorists

______________ believe that some people's brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli.

at-risk youth

Young people who are extremely vulnerable to the negative consequences of school failure, substance abuse, and early sexuality are called ________________.

authority conflict

The _____________ pathway to delinquent deviance begins at an early age with stubborn behavior, and leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.

best interests of the child

The _______________ standard encourages the state to take control of wayward children and provide care, custody, and treatment to remedy delinquent behavior.

behavioral, cognitive, psychodynamic

The three most prominent psychological perspectives on delinquency are the _______________, the _____________ and the _______________.


______________ focuses less on the effects of punishment and more on the treatment of abnormal mental and physical conditions as a crime-reduction method.


The conflict concept of delinquency views delinquency as a normal response to conditions created by __________________.

child poverty

According to Social Structure and Delinquency theorists, ________________ affects access to healthcare, proper nutrition and a sense of achievement that causes them to be at the greatest risk of being school dropouts.

secondary deviance

_______________ refers to deviant acts that define the actor and create a new identity.

self-control theory

The theory of delinquency that holds that antisocial behavior is caused by a lack of self-control stemming from an impulsive personality is called ____________________.

strain theory

_____________ holds that delinquency is functions of conflict between goals people have and means they can use to obtain them.

aging out process

Regardless of race, sex, social class, intelligence, or any other social variable, people commit less crime as they age; this is referred to as the __________________.

continuity of crime

The idea that chronic juvenile offenders are likely to continue violating the law as adults is known as __________________.

crime mapping

The research technique that employs computerized crime maps and other graphic representations of crime data patterns is called _________________.


______________ is transferring legal jurisdiction over the most serious and experienced juvenile offenders to the adult court for criminal prosecution.

symbolic interaction

_______________ theory analyzes society by addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on objects, events, and behaviors.

wayward minors

The early legal designation of youths who violate the law because of their minority status which is now referred to as status offenders is ______________.

achievement motivation

__________________ says that members of the lower class lack a desire to succeed that is strong enough to overcome the frustrations of temporal failure.

data mining

_________________ is a data analysis technique that uses multiple advanced computational methods to analyze large data sets.

degradation ceremony

A public procedure (such as being scolded by a judge) that can transform youthful offenders by thrusting them outside the social mainstream is called a _________________.

evolutionary theory

According to ________________, competition for scarce resources has influenced and shaped human species.

General Theory of Crime

A developmental theory that modifies social control theory by integrating concepts from biosocial, psychological, routine activities, and rational choice theories is called the __________________.

social conflict

According to _____________ theory those who hold power in contemporary society get to set the rules, control the law, and decide who is a deviant, delinquent, and/or criminal.

retrospective reading

The reassessment of a person's past to fit a current generalized label is referred to as a __________________.


An offender who follows the most common delinquent trajectory in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes is called a/an _________________ offender.

age of onset

The ______________ is the age at which youths begin their delinquent careers; early onset is believed to be linked with chronic offending patterns.

criminal atavism

_______________ is the idea that delinquents manifest physical anomalies that make them biologically and physiologically similar to our primitive ancestors, savage throwbacks to an earlier stage of human evolution.

cognitive theory

_________________ focuses on mental processes—the way people perceive and mentally represent the world around them, and how they solve problems.

latent trait

A stable feature, characteristic, property, or condition, such as defective or impulsive personality that makes some people delinquency prone over their life course is called a ______________.

major transitions

According to life-course theory, disruptions in life's _____________________ can be destructive and can ultimately promote delinquency.

middle-class measuring rods

___________________ are standards by which teachers and other representatives of state authority evaluate students' behavior; when lower-class youths cannot meet these standards they are subject to failure, which brings on frustration and anger at conventional society.

moral entrepreneurs

Social groups, referred to as __________________, create deviance by making rules whose infractions constitute deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders.

negative affective states

Sociologist Robert Agnew said that delinquency is the direct result of ___________________—the anger, frustration, and adverse emotions that kids feel in the wake of negative and destructive social relationships.

neutralization techniques

_________________ are a set of attitudes or beliefs that allow would-be delinquents to negate any moral apprehension they may have about committing crime so that they may feely engage in antisocial behavior without regret.


Individual factors, school and community factors, family factors, peer factors, personal deficits, environmental deficits, social deficits, and developmental deficits are all considered childhood risk factors for _______________.

Problem Behavior Syndrome

The developmental view that delinquency may best be understood as one of many social problems faced by at-risk youth is called ___________________.

Developmental/Life-course theory

The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics is called ____________________.

differential opportunity

__________________ Theory is the theory with the view that lower-class youths, whose legitimate opportunities are limited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals.

dramatization of evil

The process of social typing that transforms an offender's identity from a doer of evil to an evil person is referred to as the _______________________.


_____________ theories incorporate social, personal, and developmental factors into complex explanations of human behavior.

ego identity

_________________ is a full sense of self (how people see themselves and how the fit in with others).

psychodynamic theory

According to __________________, law violations are a product of an abnormal personality structure formed early in life and which thereafter controls human behavior choices.

pure deviants

____________ refers to those kids who engage in delinquency and also get caught and labeled.

cultural deviance theory

______________ combines elements of strain and social disorganization and embraces idea of cultural transmission, or the process in which subcultural values are passed on intergenerationally.

mood disorder

_________________ is a condition in which the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances.

moral reasoning

The limited ___________ ability of very young offenders is taken into consideration when assessing their legal culpability.

situational crime prevention

__________________ strategies aim to reduce opportunities people have to commit particular crimes.

1) Choice Theory
2) Trait Theory

Individual-level explanations of delinquency can be divided into two distinct categories:

1) ______________ - free will and rational thinking controls behavior.
2) ______________ - physical and psychological traits govern behavior.

1) social learning theory
2) social control theory

The social process approach has two independent branches:
1) ______________ holds that delinquency is learned through close relationships with others
2) ________________ views delinquency as result of weakened commitment to family, peers, and school

1) social structure theories
2) social process theories

The most prominent social theories of delinquency are divided into three main groups:
1) ________________ - delinquency is a function of a person's place in the economic structure of society.
2) _________________- delinquency is a result of a person's interaction with critical elements of society.

critical theories

_________________ - delinquent behavior is a result of economic deprivation caused by society's capitalist structure.

child savers

Nineteenth-century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system were referred to as the _________.

Monitoring the Future

The _____ study is considered the national standard to measure substance abuse trends among American teens.


By the beginning of the 19th century the apprenticeship system gave way to the _______ system.

National Incident-Based Reporting System

When fully implemented the _____, will contain data on each reported crime incident.

drug use

According to the text, a sudden increase in _____ may be a harbinger of future increase in the rate of delinquency.

self-report surveys, victim surveys, official records

According to the text, experts rely on what three primary sources of data to find out about the nature and extent of delinquency?


_______ theory holds that youth will engage in criminal and delinquent behavior after weighing the consequences and benefits of their behavior.

classical criminology

______ holds that decisions to violate the law are weighed against possible punishments; to deter crime the pain of punishment must outweigh the benefit of legal gain.

predatory crime

Violent crimes against people, and crimes in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly from its holder are called __________.

particular problems

When looking at deterrence and delinquency, focusing police activity on ________ seems to work best.


The argument that the more severe, certain, and swift the punishment the greater effect it will have is one referred to as ___________.

trust, respect

Psychologists believe that children with attachment problems lack _________ and _________.

school failure rationale

_________ assumes that the frustration experienced by a child with a learning disability leads to a negative self-image and acting out problems.


________ can be defined as the reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions, that distinguish one person from another.

low intelligence

According to James Q. Wilson and Richard Herrnstein, there appears to be a clear and consistent link between criminality and ___________.

specific deterrence

________ theory holds that the more severely young offenders are punished the less likely they are to repeat their illegal acts.


According to Merton, _____occurs when an individual accepts the goals of society but rejects or is incapable of attaining them through legitimate means.

street efficacy

A concept through which youth are able to utilize their wits to avoid violent confrontation and feel safe is known as _____.

status frustration

According to Cohen, _____ is a form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youths because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by the larger society.


According to social process theory, delinquency is a function of _____, the interactions people have with various organizations, institutions, and processes of society.

differential opportunity

The centerpiece of the Cloward and Ohlin theory is the concept of _____.


The idea that youths move in and out of delinquency and that their lifestyles can embrace both conventional and deviant values is referred to as _____.

social control

_____ theorists maintain that all people have the potential to violate the law and that modern society presents many opportunities for illegal activity.

self-fulfilling prophecy

Deviant behavior patterns that are a response to an earlier labeling experience are known as _____.


Social conflict theory is also called _____ theory.


_____ theorists view delinquency as a normal response to the conditions created by capitalism.


Critical theorists believe _____ has replaced imperialism and colonization as a new form of economic domination and oppression.

parental labeling

According to the text, _____ is extremely damaging because if may cause adolescents to seek deviant peers whose behavior amplifies the effect of the labeling.

family group conferencing

_____ involves the victim and offender along with the family, friends, and key supporters of both in deciding the resolution of the delinquent act.

sentencing circles

Peacemaking techniques in which offenders, victims, and other community members are brought together in an effort to formulate a sanction that addresses the needs of all are referred to as_______________.

family relation

The Gluecks identified a number of personal and social factors related to persistent offending, finding the most important of these factors was _____.

covert pathway

The _____ to a delinquent career begins with minor underhanded behavior, leads to property damage, and eventually escalates to more serious forms of theft and fraud.


The developmental view holds that delinquency may best be understood as one of many __________ problems.

state dependence

_____ refers to the propensity to commit crime that profoundly and permanently disrupts normal socialization over the life course.


T/F: Under parens patriae delinquent acts are not considered criminal violations.


T/F: The courts have struck down most juvenile curfew laws as unconstitutional.


T/F: The dower system had a significant impact on the role of women, and consequently children, in medieval society.

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