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First Amendment: establishment and free exercise clauses -religion

Minersville School District vs. Gobitis (1940)

students are required to salute the flag despite religious beliefs

West VA State Board of Education vs. Barnette (1943)

saluting the flag is voluntary and not compulsory if there are religious objections

Engle vs. Vitale (1962)

no child could be compelled to participate in school prayer because it was against the Establishment clause

Wallace vs. Jaffree (1985)

struck down moment of silent prayer

Everson vs. Board of Education (1947)

states can provide busing

Walz vs. Tax Commission of the City of New York (1970)

court upheld tax-exempt status for religious institutions

Wisconsin vs. Yoder (1972)

Amish can educate their own after the 8th grade

Lemon vs. Kurtzman (1971)

guidelines to determine whether policy, action, or law violated the establishment clause--purely secular in purpose, neither inhibit nor advance religion, and no government entanglement in religion

Reynolds vs. U.S. (1879)

Mormon polygamy was an illegal act and not a religious rite

Bunn vs. North Carolina (1948)

snake handling endangers health and safety

Edwards vs. Aguillard (1987)

struck down a Louisiana law requiring the teaching of "creation science" in the public schools as a counter to the teaching of evolution. The court ruled that the law prohibits use of public funds for religious purpose

Scopes vs. Tennessee (1925)

Scopes was convicted of violating a Tennessee law prohibiting the teaching of evolution

Employment Division vs. Smith (1991)

general applicability of law to religious practice

Zorach vs. Clausen (1952)

NY City's released time programs was challenged, but the court held that the program did not aid religion. It simply required that public schools "accommodate" a program of outside religious instruction

Church of Lakumi Babalue Aye vs. City of Hileah (1987)

South Carolina overturned community law banning animal sacrifice as a religious rite

Welsh vs. U.S. (1970)

allowed moral, ethical, and philosophical reasons for conscientious objector status

McCollum vs. Board of Education (1948)

public classrooms and facilities could not be used for religious instruction

Allegheny County vs. Greater Pittsburgh ACLU (1989)

Chanukah and Christmas displays are permitted in public places but not one display and not the other

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