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The Progressive Era: Urban and Social Reforms

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The Social Gospel Movement
-In the 1880's many middle-class Protestant _____________ embraced the Social Gospel movement
-The _______________ taught that to honor God, people must respect others and reform society
-Christian's
-Social Gospel
Progressive reform began in American _____________ in response to slums, tenements, child labor, alcohol abuse, prostitution, and political corruption
-Cities
Created Hull House in Chicago
-First settlement house which offered baths, cheap food, child care, job training, and health care for the poor
Jane Addams
Famous company that created gyms and libraries to help young men and children
YMCA
Created nurseries and soup kitchens
Salvation Army
Fought to create child labor laws and laws limiting women to a 10 hour day
Florence Kelly
Type of reformers that hoped ending alcohol would stop corruption, crime, and assimilate immigrants
Temperance reformers
Reformers ________________ and Carrie Nation led the Women's Christian Temperance Union(WCTU) to fight for prohibition laws
Frances Willard
18th amendment
Outlawed alcohol throughout the USA
Investigative journalists that exposed corruption, poverty, health hazards, and monopolies
Mudrackers
Book written by Jacob Riis
How the Other Half Lives - exposed urban poverty and life in the slums
Book written by Ida Tarbell
The History of Standard Oil - revealed Rockefeller's ruthless business practices and called for break-up of large monopolies
Book written by Upton Sinclair
The Jungle - revealed the unsanitary conditions of slaughterhouses and led to government regulation of food industries
Women reformers gained laws that banned _______________
prostitution
Promoted birth control for poor and middle-class women and opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in 1915
Margaret Sanger
The most significant reform for women was the demand for _______________
suffrage (voting rights)
15th amendment
Black men gained the right to vote
Women demanded property and voting rights 1848 at the ______________ Convention
Seneca Falls
2 women that formed the National American Women Suffrage Association(NAWSA)
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton
By the early 1900s, most _____________ states allowed women to vote but women in the East could not vote
western
19th Amendment
Gives women the right to vote
80% of American Americans lived in the ____________, most as ______________
-south, sharecroppers
_________________ and _______________ limited black voting
-literacy tests, poll taxes
Case that went all the way up to the supreme court that declared segregation did not violate the 14th amendment
Plessy vs Fergusson
Argued that blacks should work hard, educate themselves, and earn the rights they wanted
Booker T. Washington (Born a slave in Virginia and founded the Tuskegee Institute)
Believed in immediate civil rights and the promotion of the "Talented Tenth" of young black leaders
W.E.B. Du Bois (Born a free man in Massachusetts, first black man to earn a doctorate from Harvard)
Movement that demanded an end to segregation and discrimination and economic and educational equality
Niagara Movement
W.E.B. DuBois was the most outspoken early member of the NAACP by using __________________ newsletter to call attention to black causes
The Crisis
Believed that whites and blacks could not coexist in America
-Founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association to encourage blacks to return to Africa
Marcus Garvey
Act that created merit-based exams for most civil service jobs in federal government
Pendleton Act in 1883
Reformers tried to make government more efficient and break the power of political machines by shifting power to __________________ and __________________
-city commissions, city managers
Made the most significant state reform - "Wisconsin Idea"
Robert La Follete
The most significant state reform
Wisconsin Idea
Wisconsin was the first state to create an ___________________, form industrial commissions, and adopt regulations on big businesses
income tax
Allows citizens vote to increase taxes for new programs
Referendum
People that allow citizens to bypass the state legislature by putting an issue on a state ballot and voting to make it a law
Initiatives
Allows citizens to vote to remove an elected official
Recalls
State began using direct _______________ elections to allow voters to choose party candidates
primary
17th amendment
Allows citizens to directly elect their U.S. senator
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