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65 terms

PLT Grades 7-12 (0624)

Topics covered on the Praxis Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT): Grades 7-12 (0624(.
STUDY
PLAY
Bandura
Originator of the social learning theory and the theory of self-efficacy; Bobo doll experiment
Bruner
Cognitive approach to educational psychology; Advocated discovery learning; Learning is an active process
Dewey
Educational philosophy of pragmatism; Emphasized learning-by-doing
Piaget
Theory of cognitive development
Vygotsky
Social interactions play a role in cognitive development; Zone of proximal development
Kohlberg
Theory of stages of moral development
Bloom
Bloom's taxonomy
Metacognition
Thinking about thinking
Schema
A conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world
Transfer
Using learned information across subjects
Self-Efficacy
One's belief in his or her own ability; from Bandura
Self-Regulation
Learning guided by metacognition, strategic action, and motivation
Zone of Proximal Development
he range between children's present level of knowledge and their potential knowledge state if they receive proper guidance and instruction; from Vygotsky
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events; from Pavlov
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened or weakened by its consequences; from Skinner
Sensorimotor Stage
The stage (birth to 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities; Level 1 of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Preoperational Stage
The stage (2 to 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic; Level 2 of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Concrete Operational Stage
The stage of cognitive development (7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events; Level 3 of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Formal Operational Stage
The stage of cognitive development (beginning at 12 years of age) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts; Level 4 of Piaget's theory of cognitive development
Preconventional Morality
The stage of moral development (before age 9) where a child's morality focuses on avoiding/punishment and self-interest; Level 1 of Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Conventional Morality
The stage of moral development (early adolescence) where a child's morality focuses on living up to socail expectations and maintaining social order; Level 2 of Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Postconventional Morality
The stage of moral development where an individual begins to account for differing values and bases moral reasoning on abstract reasoning; Level 3 of Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Trust vs. Mistrust
The stage of psychosocial development where an infant (birth to 18 months) develops a sense of trust; Stage 1 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
The stage of psychosocial development where a child (2 to 3 years of age) develops a sense of control over physical skills; Stage 2 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Initiative vs. Guilt
The stage of psychosocial development where a child (3 to 5 years of age) begins asserting control over the environment; Stage 3 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Industry vs. Inferiority
The stage of psychosocial development where a child (6 to 11 years of age) copew with new social and academic demands; Stage 4 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Identity vs. Role Confusion
The stage of psychosocial development where a child (12 to 18 years of age) develops a sense of personal identity; Stage 5 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Intimacy vs. Isolation
The stage of psychosocial development where an individual (19 to 40 years of age) needs to develop relationships with other people; Stage 6 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Generativity vs. Stagnation
The stage of psychosocial development where an individual (40 to 65 years of age) needs to create things that will outlast them; Stage 7 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
The stage of psychosocial development where an individual (65 years of age to death) needs to reflect and feel a sense of fulfillment; Stage 8 of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
A law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
U.S. legislation granting educational rights to people with cognitive, emotional, or physical disabilities from birth until age 21; initially passed in 1975, it has been amended and reauthorized in 1997 and again in 2004
Section 504, Rehabilitation Act (504)
Civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs; Eligibility for protection under this act is not restricted to school-age children; Precursor to IDEA
Watson
Founder of behaviorism
Maslow
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Skinner
Operant conditioning
Erikson
Psychosocial development
Thorndike
Theory of connectionism
Self-Determination
Concerned with the motivation behind the choices that people make without external influences
Attribution
The processes by which individuals explain the causes of behavior
Extrinsic Motivation
When motivation comes from outside
Intrinsic Motivation
When motivation comes from inside
Cognitive Dissonance
The discomfort experienced when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions; Individuals have motivational drive to reduce dissonance
Positive Reinforcement
Altering behavior by adding a stimuli
Negative Reinforcement
Altering behavior by removing a stimuli
Cognitivism
Individuals generate knowledge through sequential development of cognitive abilities; Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky
Social Learning Theory
Individuals learn within a social context; Modeling and observational learning; Bandura
Constructivism
Explains how knowledge is constructed in an individual when information comes into contact with existing knowledge
Behaviorism
Learning is a change in external behavior achieved through reinforcement and repetition; Watson, Skinner
Attention
An individual becomes aware of the features of a modeled behavior; Step 1 of Bandura's social learning theory
Retention
An individual remembers details in order to learn and reproduce a behavior; Step 2 of Bandura's social learning theory
Reproduction
An individual must organize the response in accordance with a modeled behavior; Step 3 of Bandura's social learning theory
Motivation
There must be incentive driving an individual to reproduce a behavior; Step 4 of Bandura's social learning theory
Test Validity
The extent to which an assessment measures what it is meant to measure
Test Reliablity
The extent to which an assessment provides consistent results
Raw Score
Assessment score based solely on the number of correctly answered items
Scaled Score
Assessment score relative to the number of questions and/or peer results
Percentile
Assessment score along a continuum
Standard Deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Mean
Average value
Median
Central value
Mode
The most common value
Grade-Equivalent Scores
Assessment score relative to other students in the same grade
Age-Equivalent Scores
Assessment score relative to other students of the same age
Bloom's Taxonomy
A hierarchy of cognitive levels which categorizes the skills required at each level according to difficulty