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627 terms

600 Plus Psychology Terms

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Action Potential
The firing of a neuron. Occurs when charge inside neuron becomes more positive than charge outside.
Acetycholine
neurotransmitter associated with voluntary movement, sleep and wakefulness. Too little is associated with Alzheimer's
Agoraphobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear of leaving one's home.
All or None Law
Either a neuron completely fires completely or it does not fire at all.
Altruism
Behavior that is unselfish
Amygdala
Part of brain's limbic system that attaches emotional significance to info and mediates both defensive and aggressive behavior.
Anal Stage
Freud's second stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on elimination or holding onto feces. The stage is often thought of as representing child's ability to control his or her own world.
Analysis of Variance
Inferential statistical procedure used to compare 2 or more means to see if the difference is not chance (need p<.05 for statistical significance)
ANOVA
Analysis of Variance.
Aphasia
Impairment of ability to communicate either through oral or written discourse as a result of brain damage. Ex. Wernicke's ________ or Broca's __________
Approach-Approach Conflict
conflict presented when 2 opposite but equally appealing choices are available but can not both be obtained.
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
conflict presented when the best positive choice will result in a negative outcome as well as positive.
Optimum Arousal Theory
Theory stating that we are motivated by our innate desire to maintain an personally preferred level of arousal.
Assimilation
Piaget term for incorporating objects, experiences, or info into existing schemas.
Attachment
The strong bond a child forms with his or her primary caregiver.
Attribution Theory
Theory that argues people look for explanation of behavior, associating either dispositional (internal) explanations or situational (external) explanations
Authoritarian
Parenting style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and the expectation of unquestioned obedience.
Authoritative
Parenting style focused on setting reasonable rules and expectations while encouraging communication and independence.
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary actions of body (e.g., breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation). Also regulates Fight or Flight Phenomenon.
Availability Heuristic
Rule of thumb stating that info more readily accessible in our memory is more important than info not as easily accessible.
Aversion Therapy
Behavioral treatment where disliked stimuli is paired with a negative behavior in hopes that behavior will change in future to avoid the disliked stimuli.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Conflict where both possible choices have an equal negative outcome.
Axon
Tail-like part of neuron through which info exits cell.
Behavior Modification
Application of behavioral theory to change a specific behavior.
Behavior Therapy
Application of conditioning in treatment of mental illness.
Behaviorism
School of psychology founded on premise that behavior is measurable and can be changed through the application of various behavioral principles. DENIES EXISTENCE OF UNCONSCIOUS
Normal Curve
perfect unimodal curve where mean, median, and mode are equal.
Binocular Cues
Visual hints (convergence and retinal disparity) that require both eyes to perceive distance (as opposed to those requiring only one eye)
Broca's Aphasia
Loss of function associated with damage to a specific area of the left frontal lobe, demonstrated by impairment in producing understandable speech.
Castration Anxiety
According to Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development, fear a boy in phallic stage experiences due to a fear that his father will render him powerless if his father finds out about his attraction toward his mother.
Catharsis
Emotional release associated with expression of unconscious conflicts Freud's idea for releasing anger - not supported by research
Soma
main part of neuron where information is processed.
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord.
Central Tendency
statistical measures attempting to depict average score in a distribution (includes mean, median, and/or mode)
Egocentric
young child's inability to understand another person's perspective - typical of Piaget's preoperational stage
Cerebellum
Part of brain associated with balance, smooth movement, and posture & implicit (also called procedural or nondeclarative) memories
Cerebral Hemispheres
The two halves of the brain (right and left)
Chunking
Combining info to be remembered into small groups (e.g., a seven chunk phone number such as two groups one of 3 and one of 4) to increase STM
Classical Conditioning
Behavioral technique of pairing a naturally occurring stimulus and response chain with a different stimulus in order to produce a response which is not naturally occurring.
Client Centered Therapy
humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger's beliefs that individual has unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
Coefficient of Determination
Statistic that represents amount of variance accounted for by a correlation.
Cognition
Process of receiving, processing, storing, and using info.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Treatment involving the combination of theories of learning and those based on the theory that our thoughts control a large portion of our behaviors).
Cognitive Dissonance
Realization of contradictions in one's own attitudes and behaviors that causes discomfort
Cognitive Psychology
Sub-field of psychology associated with information processing and role it plays in emotion, behavior, and physiology.
Cognitive Therapy
Treatment approach based on theory that our thoughts control a large part of our behaviors and emotions. Therefore, changing the way we think can result in positive changes in the way we act and feel.
Collective Unconscious
According to Jung, the content of the unconscious mind that is passed down from generation to generation in all humans.
Compulsion
Physical act resulting from an obsession. Typically done to alleviate the discomfort created by an obsession.
Concrete Operational Stage
According to Piaget - stage of cognitive development where child between ages of 7 and 12 begins thinking more globally and outside of the self but are still deficient in abstract thought.
Conditioned Response
Response in a stimulus-response chain that is not naturally occurring, but has been learned through pairing it with a naturally occurring chain.
Conditioned Stimulus
Stimulus in a stimulus-response chain that is not naturally occurring, but has been learned through pairing with a naturally occurring chain.
Conditioning
Learning. Process of learning new behaviors or responses as a result of their consequences.
Conformity
Changing your attitudes, beliefs, thoughts, or behaviors in order to be more consistent with others and fit in with the group
Confounding Variable
Any variable not part of research study that has an effect on research results (unintended)
Conscience
According to Freud, the superego.
Consciousness
Awareness of yourself and world around you.
Conservation
Understanding, typically achieved in concrete operations that matter remains the same even when the shape changes (i.e., a pound of clay is still a pound of clay whether is is rolled in a ball or pounded flat). Piaget term
Construct
Any variable that can not be directly observed but rather is measured through indirect methods. (Examples: intelligence, motivation)
Construct Validity
Validity answers the question of whether or not the measuring device actually measures the theoretical idea under question.
Content Validity
A measurement device's ability to be generalized to the entire content of what is being measured.
Context Dependent Memory
Theory that info learned in a particular situation or place is better remembered when in that same situation or place.
Continuous Reinforcement
The application of reinforcement every time a specific behavior occurs.
Control Group
Group of subjects in experiment that does not receive the independent variable.
Convergence
Binocular cue to distance referring to fact that the closer an object is, the more inward our eyes need to turn in order to focus
Convergent Thinking
Logical and conventional thought leading to a single answer to a problem.
Conversion Disorder
Somatoform disorder where individual experiences a loss of sensation or function due to a psychological belief (e.g., paralysis, blindness, deafness).
Correlated Sample
Sample data that is related to each other.
Correlation
Degree to which two or more variables are related to each other. Refers to direction that variables move and does not necessarily represent cause and effect.
Correlation Coefficient
Statistic or number representing the degree to which two or more variables are related. Often abbreviated 'r.' Ex. r= 1.0 or r- -.8
Counter-conditioning
Use of conditioning to eliminate a previously conditioned response. Conditioned stimulus (CS) is repaired with a different unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to eventually elicit a new conditioned response (CR) Ex. Mary Cover Jones
Critical Period
Time frame deemed highly important in developing in a healthy manner; can be physically, emotionally, behaviorally, or cognitively.
Cross Sectional Study
A research study that examines effects of development (maturation) by examining different subjects at various ages at the same time.
Crystallized Intelligence
The part of intelligence which involves acquisition, as opposed to the use, of info- Increases with age
Decay
Theory which states that memory fades and/or disappears over time if it is not used or accessed.
Explicit Memory
Part of LTM where factual info is stored, such as math formulas, vocabulary, & life events. Semantic and episodic memories
Deductive Reasoning
Decision making process in which ideas are processed from the general to the specific.
Defense Mechanisms
Freud's term for psychological forces which prevent undesirable or inappropriate impulses from entering consciousness and reduce anxiety
Delusion
False belief (e.g., believing you are Napoleon, have magical powers, or the false belief that others are 'out to get you.').
Dendrites
Extensions of cell body of a neuron responsible for receiving incoming neurotransmitters.
Dependent Variable
Variable in experiment that is measured; outcome of an experiment.
Descriptive Statistics
The branch of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what is happening now within a population.
Developmental Psychology
Area of psychology focused on how children grow psychologically to become who they are as adults.
Difference Threshold
Smallest change in perception which is noticeable at least 50% of the time.
Discrimination
In behavioral theory - learned ability to differentiate between 2 similar objects or situations.
Dispositional Attribution
A behavior explained or interpreted as being caused by internal influences.
Dissociation
A separation from self. Most of us experience this in very mild forms such as when we are driving long distance and lose time or find ourselves day dreaming longer than we thought.
Divergent Thinking
The ability to arrive at multiple solutions to a problem or idea - associated with creativity
Dopamine
Neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
Dopamine Hypothesis
Theory that schizophrenia is caused by an excess amount of dopamine in brain. Research has found that medication to reduce dopamine can reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Double Blind Study
Research method in which both subjects and experimenter are unaware to the anticipated results and who is in the experimental group
Drive
An internal motivation to fulfill a need or reduce the negative aspects of an unpleasant situation.
Chemotherapy
The use of medication to treat a mental illness.
Ego
In Psychoanalytical theory, the part of the personality which maintains balance between our impulses and our conscience.
Egocentric
The thinking in the preoperational stage of cognitive development where children believe everyone sees the world fro the same perspective as he or she does.
Ellis, Albert
Cognitive Psychologist who developed Rational-Emotive Therapy. (RET or REBT)
Emotion
Feelings about a situation, person, or objects that involves changes in physiological arousal and cognitions.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
The awareness of and ability to manage one's emotions in a healthy and productive manner.
Encoding
The transformation of info to be stored in memory.
Endorphins
neurotransmitter involved in pain relief, and feelings of pleasure and contentedness.
Epinephrine
neurotransmitter involved in energy and glucose metabolism.
Episodic Memory
Subcategory of Declarative or Explicit memory where info regarding life events are stored.
Escape Conditioning
Operant conditioning based on idea that a behavior is more likely to be repeated if it results in the cessation of a negative event.
Etiology
Causal relationships of diseases; theories regarding how the specific disease or disorder began.
Experimental Group
In research, group of subjects who receive independent variable.
Experimental Method
Research method using random assignment of subjects and manipulation of variables in order to determine cause and effect.
Experimenter Bias
Errors in a research study due to predisposed notions or beliefs of experimenter. Eliminate by using double blind design
External Locus of Control
Rotter's idea that some individuals have the belief that environment has more control over life circumstances than the individual does.
External Validity
The extent to which data collected from a sample can be generalized to the entire population.
Extinction
Reduction and eventual disappearance of a learned or conditioned response after it is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus-response chain.
Extrinsic Motivation
The desire or push to perform a certain behavior based on potential external rewards that may be received as a result.
Extroversion
Personality style where the individual prefers outward and group activity as opposed to inward and individual activity.
Factor Analysis
A statistical technique used combine data into similar groups
Fixation
In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, the failure to complete a stage successfully which results in a continuation of that stage into later adulthood.
Fixed Interval Schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a specific period of time.
Fixed Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a specific number of responses.
Frequency Distribution
A table showing the number of occurrences for each score
Frequency Effect
The phenomenon in memory which states that we tend to remember information better if it is repeated.
Freud, Sigmund
Referred to as father of psychological analysis. His extensive theory of personality development (psychoanalytical theory) is the cornerstone for modern psychological thought, and consists of (1) the psychosexual stages of development, (2) the structural model of personality (id, ego, superego), and (3) levels of consciousness (conscious, subconscious, and unconscious). See Psychoanalysis.
Flooding
A behavioral technique used to treat phobias in which client is presented with feared stimulus all at once until the associated anxiety disappears.
Fluid Intelligence
Part of intelligence which involves the use, as opposed to the acquisition, of info. Speed of processing. DECREASES WITH AGE
Formal Operational Stage
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development where thinking becomes more abstract.
Framing
Presenting info either positively or negatively in order to change the influence is has on an individual or group. Wording effects. 90% lean not 20% fat!
Free Association
The psychoanalytic technique of allowing a patient to talk without direction or input in order to analyze current issues of the client.
Frontal Lobe
The lobe at the front of the brain associated with movement, speech, and impulsive behavior.
Frustration
The feelings, thoughts, and behaviors associated with not achieving a particular goal or the belief that a goal has been prematurely interrupted.
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
Theory arguing that aggression is the natural reaction to frustration.
Functionalism
School of thought popular in 19th century emphasizing conscious experiences as a precursor to behavior - Studied reasons for elements that make up consciousness
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendency to over estimate the internal attributes of another person's actions.
g factor
Basic intelligence of Spearman's theory. Typically compared to s which represents specific intelligences.
GABA (Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid)
Major INHIBITORY neurotransmitter Too little has been associated with anxiety disorders.
Gender Identity
Internal sense of being either male or female. Usually congruent with biological gender, but not always.
Gender Role
The accepted behaviors, thoughts, and emotions of a specific gender based upon the views of a particular society or culture.
Gender Typing
The process of developing the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions associated with a particular gender.
Generalization
The tendency to associate stimuli, and therefore respond similarly to, due to their closeness on some variable such as size, shape, color, or meaning.
Genital Stage
Freud's final stage of psychosexual development where healthy sexual development is defined as attraction to same aged, opposite sexed peer.
Gestalt
German word typically translated as meaning 'whole' or 'form.'
Gestalt Therapy
Treatment focusing on awareness and understanding of one's feelings and restoring wholeness.
Group Polarization
Tendency for members of a cohesive group to make more extreme decisions due to lack of opposing views. Groups of like people become more strong in their opinions
Group Therapy
Psychotherapy conducted with at least three or four non-related individuals who are similar in some are, such as gender, age, mental illness, or presenting problem.
Group Think
Tendency for members of a cohesive group to reach decisions without weighing all the facts, especially those contradicting the majority opinion.
Gustation
Sense of taste.
Habituation
Decrease in response to a stimulus due to repetition (e.g., not hearing the ticking of a clock after getting used to it)
Hallucination
False perception of reality (e.g., hearing voices that aren't there or seeing people who do not exist) [auditory (hearing); visual (sight); olfactory (smell); tactile (touch); and taste].
Halo Effect
Tendency to assign generally positive or generally negative traits to a person after observing one specific positive or negative trait, respectively. Example: believing attractive people are also intelligent and good leaders
Hawthorne Effect
Phenomenon that subject behavior changes by mere fact that they are being observed.
Health Psychology
Specific field in psychology concerned with psychology's impact on health, physical well being, and illness.
Heuristic
A rule of thumb based on experience used to make decisions.
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Theory of Motivation which states that we must achieve lower level needs, such as food, shelter, and safety before we can achieve higher level needs, such as belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
Higher Order Conditioning
Pairing a second conditioned stimulus with first conditioned stimulus in order to produce a second conditioned response.
Hippocampus
Part of limbic system. Involved more in memory, and transfer of info from short-term to long-term memory.
Homeostasis
Tendency of body (and the mind) to natural gravitate toward a state of equilibrium or balance.
Humanistic Psychology
A theoretical view of human nature which stresses a positive view of human nature and the strong belief in psychological homeostasis.
Humanistic Therapy
Treatment focused on increasing awareness of one's self concept.
Hypnosis
A deep state of relaxation where an individual is more susceptible to suggestions.
Hypothalamus
part of brain that controls autonomic nervous system, and therefore maintains body's homeostasis (controls body temperature, metabolism, and appetite. Also translates extreme emotions into physical responses.
Hypothesis
A prediction about relationship between two or more variables.
Id
In Psychoanalytical theory, part of personality which contains our primitive impulses such as sex, anger, and hunger.
Ideal Self
Humanistic term (Rogers) representing characteristics, behaviors, emotions, and thoughts to which a person aspires.
Illusion
Misperception of reality (e.g., the illusion of a lake in the middle of a desert).
Imagery
Utilizing the mind to create a mental representation of a sensory experience.
Inappropriate Affect
Expressing contradictory behavior when describing or experiencing an emotion (e.g., smiling when discussing something sad; laughing when talking about the death of a loved one).
Independent Variable
The variable in an experiment that is manipulated or compared.
Inductive Reasoning
Decision making process in which ideas are processed from the specific to the general.
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
The area or specialty in psychology focused on the application of psychological principles in the work force.
Inferential Statistics
Type of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what might be happening or what might happen (estimation) in future (probability).
Inhalant
Substances such as spray paint, freon, and glue that produce an intoxicating effect when inhaled.
Innate
Occurring without learning, inborn.
Insanity
A legal term representing inability to know right from wrong or inability to understand consequences of one's actions.
Intelligence
The degree to which one can adapt to one's environment.
Intelligence Quotient [IQ]
The scores achieved on psychological tests aimed at quantifying intellectual ability.
Internal Locus of Control
The belief that an individual has more control over life circumstances than the environment does.
Internal Validity
A measure of trustworthiness of a sample of data. Looks at subject, testing, and environment in which data collection took place.
Interval Scale
Any scale of measurement possessing magnitude and equal intervals, but not an absolute zero.
Interview
A subjective personality and mental health assessment typically consisting of questions and answers.
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation or desire to do something based on enjoyment of the behavior itself rather than relying on or requiring outside reinforcements.
Introspection
The process of examining one's own consciousness used by Structuralists and Functionalist researchers
Introversion
Tendency to focus energy inward resulting in decreased social interaction.
Just Noticeable Difference
The smallest change in a sensory perception that is detectable 50% of the time.
Jung, Carl
A student of Freud who split from the Psychoanalytic Society because of his disagreements with Freud, especially his view of the collective unconscious.
Latency Stage
Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development where sexuality is repressed in the unconscious and children focus on identifying with their same sex parent and interact with same sex peers.
Latent Content
Freud's term for underlying or hidden content represented in symbols of dreams.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement but is not demonstrated until such time as reinforcement occurs.
Law of Effect
Theory proposed by Thorndike stating that those responses that are followed by a positive consequence will be repeated more frequently than those that are not.
Learned Helplessness
A condition that occurs after a period of negative consequences where the person begins to believe they have no control.
Learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior due to an interaction with environment. Conditioning
Learning Theory
Based on idea that changes in behavior result more from experience and less from our personality or how we think or feel about a situation.
Legitimate Power
Power derived through one's position, such as a police officer or elected official.
Libido
Sigmund Freud's terminology of sexual energy or sexual drive.
Limbic System
A brain system that plays a role in emotional expression, particularly in the emotional component of behavior, memory, and motivation.
Locus of Control
A belief about the amount of control a person has over situations in their life.
Longitudinal Study
A research design that assesses effects of development (maturation) by using the same subjects over an extended period of time
Long Term Memory
Relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory.
Manifest Content
According to Freud, the story-like superficial content of a dream, often representing only the daily activities and little underlying unconscious material.
Maslow
Humanistic Theorist most famous for the development of the Hierarchy of Needs.
Maturation
Changes due to natural process of aging as determined by your genetics - orderly automatic development processes
Mean
A measure of central tendency determined by adding all scores together and dividing by the number of scores. Often referred to as the statistical average.
Measure of Central Tendency
An average (see Mean, Median, and/or Mode)
Median
A measure of central tendency that uses middle most occurring score in a distribution (score that occurs at exactly the 50th percentile).
Medulla
Part of brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.
Meta Analysis
The statistical procedure used to combine numerous and independent research results into one study. Each research study becomes one subject in the meta-analysis.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 2nd. Edition
An Objective test utilizing 567 items which have been empirically derived to measure a variety of psychological concerns.
MMPI-2
See Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, 2nd. Edition.
Mode
Measure of central tendency that uses most frequently occurring score.
Modeling
Learning through imitation or observation of others. Bandura
Motivation
The process that energizes and/or maintains a behavior.
Motive
Internal states that provide direction for one's behaviors.
n
Symbol used for number of subjects or data in a distribution.
Naturalistic Observation
A research method where subject(s) is(are) observed without interruption under normal circumstances.
Negative Correlation
correlation where one two variables tend to move in the opposite direction (example: the number of pages printed and the amount of ink left in your printer are negatively correlated. The more pages printed, the less ink you have left.)
Negative Skew
A curve or distribution of scores that has extreme scores below the mean that are atypical of the majority of scores.
Neuron
A specialized nerve cell.
Neurotransmitter
A chemical found in animals that plays a role in our behavior, cognition's, and emotions.
Nightmare
A frightening dream occurring in REM sleep.
Nominal Scale
Any scale that contains no magnitude. Often thought of as name only, meaning that the variables of a _________ scale can be identified but not measured.
Procedural Memory
A subsystem within Long term memory which consists of skills we acquire through repetition and practice (e.g., dance, playing the piano, driving a car) Also called implicit or nondeclarative
Norepinephrine
neurotransmitter associated with eating and alertness. Too little has been associated with depression in addition to serotonin
Norm
An expectation based on multiple observations.
Normal Curve
A graphical interpretation of a population that is 'bell shaped' as it has the highest frequency in the middle and this frequency diminishes the farther you get from the center on either end. The mean, median, and mode are all equal in a perfect normal curve.
Normal Distribution
The scores of a sample or population that, when graphed, fall on or close to a normal curve. A normal distribution is often ideal in research because the data can then be said to have all of the characteristics of a normal curve.
Null Hypothesis
The hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data. Stating opposite of what you expect to find
Object Permanence
The understanding that objects exist even when they are not directly observed. This skill is gained at the end of the sensorimotor period.
Objective Personality Test
A generic term for psychological procedures used to measure personality which rely on measurable techniques such as true false in tests such as the MMPI-2
Obsession
persistent and seemingly uncontrollable thought.
Occipital Lobe
One of the lobes of the brain. Contains the visual cortex and plays a major role ininterpretation of visual info.
Olfaction
The sense of smell.
Operant Conditioning
Learning that occurs due to manipulation of possible consequences.
Optimal Level of Arousal
Theory arguing that humans are driven to increase or decrease arousal to produce a comfortable level that is not over- nor under stimulating.
Oral Stage
Freud's first stage of psychosexual development where primary sexual focus is on the mouth through sucking, tasting, and verbalizing.
Ordinal Scale
Any scale that reflects only magnitude but does not contain equal intervals or an absolute zero
Overlearning
A technique used to improve memory where info is learned to the point that it can be repeated without mistake more than one time. Continuted rehearsal after material is leanred - Ebbinghaus
Panic Attack
Anxiety disorder with periods of extreme anxiety and physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, shakiness, dizziness, and racing thoughts. Initial attacks are often reported to feel like a heart attack due to the heart palpitations. No medical cause
Parasympathetic Nervous System
A subsystem of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) that returns body to homeostasis - rest and digest
Parietal Lobe
One of four lobes of brain. Contains Somatosensory Cortex and is therefore involved in processing of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
Penis Envy
In Psychoanalytic Thought, the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.
Percentile Rank
Percentage of scores falling at or below a specific score.
Perception
The process of organizing and using info that is received through senses.
Perceptual Constancy
Ability to perceive objects as unchanged despite the change noticed by senses (e.g., the ability to understand and see buildings as remaining the same height even though they appear larger as we get closer to them).
Perfect Correlation
A correlation of either +1.0 or -1.0.
Person Centered Therapy
Therapeutic technique based on humanistic theory which is non-directive and empathic also called client centered.
Personality
Stable set of individual characteristics that make us unique.
Personality Disorder
Maladaptive and stable set of individual characteristics that cluster to form a recognized disorder.
Permissive [parents]
Parenting style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to make most decisions and control their own behavior.
Persuasion
The deliberate attempt to influence the thoughts, feelings or behaviors of another.
Phallic Stage
Freud's third stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on symbolism of genitals. Oedipus conflict takes place in this stage
Phi Phenomenon
The perception of motion based on two or more stationary objects (e.g., perception of chaser lights brought about by different lights blinking at different times).
Phobia
An intense fear of a specific object or situation - the fear must significantly restrict our way of life.
Placebo
a fake drug used in the testing of medication
Placebo Effect
phenomenon in research where subject's beliefs about outcome can significantly effect outcome without any other intervention.
Plasticity
ability of the brain, especially in our younger years to compensate for damage.
Pleasure Principle
Freud's theory regarding id's desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain in order to achieve immediate gratification.
Pons
Part of brain that plays a role in the regulation of states of arousal, ESPECIALLY sleep and dreaming.
Population
The entire group to which research is hoping to generalize (e.g., males, adults, U.S. citizens).
Positive Correlation
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction.
Positive Reinforcement
Something positive provided after a response in order to increase the probability of that response occurring in the future.
Positive Skew
A curve or distribution of scores that has extreme scores above the mean that are atypical of the majority of scores
Criterion Validity
A measurements ability to predict scores on another measurement that is related or purports to measure the same or similar construct
Prejudice
Negative beliefs about a person's entire character based on only one characteristic. This belief is often based on faulty info.
Preoperational Stage
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development in which a child develops objects permanency and language.
Primacy Effect
Tendency to remember the first bit of info in a series due to increased rehearsal.
Primary Reinforcer
A reinforcer that meets our basic needs such as food, water, sleep, or love.
Proactive Interference
Interference in memory due to prior learning.
Projection
In Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby we transfer or project our feelings about one person onto another.
Projective Techniques
Generic term for psychological procedures used to measure personality which rely on ambiguous stimuli.
Psychiatrist
A medical doctor with training in mental illness.
Psychoanalysis
Developed by Sigmund Freud, type of therapy known for long term treatment, typically several times per week, where unresolved issues from individual's childhood are analyzed and resolved.
Psychoanalytic Theory
Theory developed by Freud consisting of structural model of personality, topographical model of personality, defense mechanisms, drives, and the psychosexual stages of development. The primary driving force behind theory is the id, ego and superego and division of consciousness into conscious mind, the pre/subconscious, and unconscious.
Psychodynamic Therapy
modern adaptation of psychoanalytic therapy which has made sometimes minor and sometimes major changes to Freud's original theories.
Psychotherapy
The treatment of mental illness or related issues based on psychological theory.
Psychology
The study of emotion, cognition, and behavior, and their interaction.
Psychosis
Break from reality, usually identified by hallucinations, delusions, and/or disorientation.
Punishment
The adding of a negative stimulus in order to decrease a response (e.g., spanking a child to decrease negative behavior).
Quasi-Experimental Research
Research experiment that uses mostly correct methods but does not have randomization
r
Symbol used for the Pearson-product moment correlation (correlation coefficient)
Random Assignment
Assigning subjects to experimental groups based on chance.
Random Sample
A group of subjects representing the population who are selected through chance. All members of the population have an equal chance of being selected for this...
Range
Difference between the highest and lowest score in a distribution (often 1 is added to the result when computing statistics to allow for the 0.5 on either end lost due to rounding).
Ratio Scale
Any scale of measurement possessing magnitude, equal intervals, and an absolute zero
Rational Emotive Therapy
Cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis' theory that cognition's control emotions and behaviors; therefore, changing how we think about things affects the way we feel and behave.
Rationalization
defense mechanism where one believes or states an acceptable explanation for a behavior as opposed to the real explanation.
Reaction Formation
defense mechanism where unacceptable impulses are converted to their opposite.
Reality Principle
According to Freud, attempt by ego to satisfy both the id and superego
Recency Effect
Tendency to remember the last bit of info due to the shorter time available for forgetting.
Rehearsal
Repeating information in order to improve our recall of this information.
Reinforcer
Anything that follows a behavior that increases chances that behavior occurring again.
Regression
Defense mechanism where one reverts to earlier stage of development.
Reliability
A statistical measure of a tests consistency, or ability to result in similar scores if given repeatedly.
Replication
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Representative Sample
A sample or subgroup of the population that possesses the same characteristics of the population
Representativeness Heuristic
A rule of thumb where similarity to a prototype or similar situation dictates a decision.
Repression
In Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our consciousness and into our unconscious.
Resistance
In psychoanalysis, the client's refusal to participate in a therapeutic intervention due to underlying issues unrelated to the intervention.
Reticular Formation (Reticular Activating System)
Part of brain stem involved in arousal and attention, sleep and wakefulness, and control of reflexes.
Retinal Disparity
Binocular cue to distance referring to distance between the two images sent to the brain by our eyes. The farther apart these images, the closer the object.
Retrieval
Process of bringing material out of long term memory and into consciousness.
Retroactive Interference
Interference in memory created by later learning.
Rogers, Carl
Humanistic Psychologist who developed Client-Centered Therapy.
Rorschach Test
projective technique utilizing ambiguous inkblots as stimuli.
Sample
Portion of entire population used to estimate what is likely happening within a population.
Scatter Plot
A graphical representation of data received in a correlational study.
Schema
The cognitive structure utilized to make sense of the world.
Secondary Reinforcer
a reinforcement that represents a primary enforcer such as Money. Green paper has no actual value but it represents things you can buy.
Self Actualization
the reaching of ones full potential the highest point in Maslows hierarchy
Self-Concept
The subjective perception of the self.
Self Efficacy
One's belief in his or her own ability. High or low.
Self Serving Bias
The tendency to assign internal attributes to successes and external factors to failures.
Semantic Memory
The part of declarative memory that stores general information such as names and facts.
Sensation
Information brought in through the senses.
Sensorimotor Stage
The first stage in Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development where a child's primary way of learning about the world is through the senses and movement.
Sensory Adaptation
The reduced ability to sense a stimulus after prolonged exposure.
Sensory Memory
The brief storage of information brought in through the senses; typically only lasts up to a few seconds.
Separation Anxiety
Distress caused by the absence of an infant's primary caregiver
Serotonin
A neurotransmitter involved in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behavior. Many antidepressants attempt to reduce the amount of __________ that is taken back (reuptake) into the sending neuron. Too little is associated with depression
Shaping
Gradually molding a specific response by reinforcing responses that come close to the desired response.
Short Term Memory
Stage of memory where info is stored for up to 30 seconds prior to either being forgotten or transferred to long term memory.
Situational Attribution
Explaining behavior as being caused by external influences.
Skinner, B. F.
Operant conditioning pioneers worked with pigeons and mice in operant chambers
Skinner Box
cage designed for animals in operant conditioning experiments.
Skew
degree to which a curve or distribution of scores has extreme scores atypical of majority of scores
Social Facilitation
The effect of another persons presence on one's performance. Typically we perform simple or well-learned tasks better in front of others
Social Learning Theory
Developmental theory arguing that personality is learned through the interactions with the environment. Bandura
Social Loafing
Tendency for people to work less on a task the greater the number of people are working on that task.
Social Psychology
The branch of psychology which focuses on society and it's impact on the individual.
Social Roles
Accepted behaviors associated with a particular position within a group.
Social Skills
Skills or behaviors deemed desirable or necessary to effectively interact with society.
Social Support
Term used to describe the degree of emotional support afforded a client by friends, family, and other acquaintances.
Somatic Nervous System
Sub system of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Primary function is to regulate the actions of the skeletal muscles.
Split-Half Reliability
The correlation coefficient determined by comparing first half of the measurement to the second half. Measure of the internal consistency of a test or measuring device.
Spontaneous Recovery
Tendency for previously learned info to resurface rapidly after a period of extinction.
Stage Theory
The idea that an individual must pass through one stage of development before he or she can reach the next stage.
Standard Deviation
measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean
Standardization
The process of making a test or procedure the same for everyone so that results can be compared to each other.
State Dependent Memory
The theory that information learned in a particular state of mind (e.g., depressed, happy, somber) is more easily recalled when in that same state of mind.
Stimulus
Anything in the environment to which one responds.
Stimulus Discrimination
The ability to tell the difference and therefore not respond to similar stimuli.
Stimulus Generalization
The response to new stimuli due its similarity to the original stimuli.
Storage
The process of saving information in long term memory
Stress
The physical and psychological result of internal or external pressure.
Stressor
Anything, internal or external, which applies psychological pressure on an individual.
Structuralism
Wundt and Titchner school of thought from the 19th century focused on the gathering of psychological information through the examination of the structure of the mind.
Sublimation
A defense mechanism where undesired or unacceptable impulses are transformed into behaviors which are accepted by society.
Superego
In Psychoanalytical theory, the part of the personality that represents the conscience.
Survey
A research technique in which subjects respond to a series of questions.
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
Part of the Autonomic Nervous System responsible for the fight or flight phenomenon.
Synapse
Space between axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another through which neurotransmitters travel.
Systematic Desensitization
Treatment technique where client is exposed to gradually increasing anxiety provoking stimuli while relaxing; goal is for the client to eventually confront a phobia or fear without previously associated anxiety.
t-Test
A group of statistics used to determine if a significance difference exists between the means of two sets of data.
TAT
Thematic Apperception Test
Temperament
Person's typical way of responding to his or her environment. Evident in babies as easy, difficult, and slow to warm up
Temporal Lobe
One of four lobes of the brain. Contains auditory cortex
Test-Retest Reliability
Comparing the scores of the same measuring device administered to the same people on two different occasions to see if results repeat
Thalamus
Considered the central switching station of the brain because all of the body's senses (except the olfactory senses) pass through this before being relayed to the cortex.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Subjective personality test where ambiguous pictures are shown to a subject and they are asked to tell a story related to them.
Trait
A relatively permanent internal characteristic (e.g., friendly, outgoing)
Transference
Intense feelings directed toward the therapist that many clients experience in the process of therapy.
Trial and Error Learning
Learning that takes place through the application of possible solutions to a problem. Thorn
Type A Personality
A theory used to describe a person with a significant number of traits focused on urgency, impatience, success, and excessive competition.
Type B Personality
A theory used to describe person with a significant number of traits focused on relaxation, lack of urgency, and normal or reduced competition.
Type I Error
The error that is committed when a true null hypothesis is rejected erroneously. The probability of a Type I Error is abbreviated with the lowercase Greek letter alpha.
Type II Error
The error that is committed when a false null hypothesis is accepted erroneously. The probability of a Type II Error is abbreviated with the uppercase Greek letter beta.
Unconditional Positive Regard
Nonjudgmental empathy and respect for another person. Rogers idea
Unconditioned Response
The response in a stimulus-response chain that is naturally occurring as opposed to learned.
Unconditioned Stimulus
The stimulus in a stimulus-response chain that is naturally occurring as opposed to learned.
Unconscious
According to Freud, the area of the psyche where unknown wishes and needs are kept that play a significant role in our conscious behavior.
Validity
Statistical technique used to determine if a test is actually measuring what it is intended to measure. Accuracy
Variable
Any factor which has potential to influence another factor in a research study.
Variable Interval Schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a changing amount of time.
Variable Ratio Schedule
A schedule in which the reinforcement is presented after a changing number of responses.
Variance
A measure of spread within a distribution (the square of the standard deviation).
WAIS-III
See Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition.
Weber's Law
states that difference threshold, or jnd, is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus with which the comparison is being maade
Wechsler Intelligence Tests
Objective measure of intelligence created to measure both verbal and performance skills
Wernicke's Aphasia
Aphasia resulting from damage to a specific area of left temporal lobe. Affects written and spoken language.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Theory arguing that for performance to be optimal, the amount of arousal required must be optimized. Too much or too little stimulation will result in a poorer performance. Forms an inverted U.
Zero Correlation
Absence of a relationship between two or more variables as determined by a correlational statistic. Often abbreviated as 'r=0.'
z-score
a standard score that sets the mean to zero and standard deviation to one. indicates how many
Single Blind
when subjects do not know which experimental group they are in
Double Blind
a test procedure in which the identity of those receiving the intervention is concealed from both the administrators and the subjects until after the test is completed. Designed to eliminate experimenter bias
Experimenter Bias
bias introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment can be subtly communicated to the participants in the experiment - eliminate by using double blind design
case study
Detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view - often for rare behaviors or conditions
signal detection theory
theory predicting how and when we detect presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 199)
visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain's visual cortex that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
bipolar cells
eye neurons that receive information from the retinal rods and cones and distribute information to the ganglion cells
ganglion cells
the specialized cells which lie behind the bipolar cells whose axons form the optic nerve which takes the information to the brain
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons and make myelin
myelin
a fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses on neurons
terminal buttons
Small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
synaptic vesicles
tiny sacs in a terminal button that release chemicals into the synapse
congruence
consistency between one's ideal self and actual self that results in a positive self concept - Rogers
incongruence
inconsistency between one's ideal self and actual self that results in a negative self concept - Rogers
delusion of grandeur
an exaggerated false belief about one's importance, wealth, power, or talents
delusion of persecution
a false belief that one is being mistreated, abused, or harassed
positive punishment
following an undesired response by adding an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring
negative punishment
following an undesired response by removing a pleasant stimulus this is also called a time out and reduces the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring
positive reinforcement
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
negative reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
variable ratio
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a changing number of responses. Example gambling or sales
fixed ratio
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a correct number of responses - ex. receiving $1 for every time you deliver 5 newspapers
variable interval
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a changing length of time. Ex. fishing or pop quizzes
fixed interval
a schedule where reinforcement happens after a certain length of time Ex. quizzes every Friday
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events following a trauma
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events preceding a trauma
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports one's preconceptions and not notice info that is contradicting
belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting ideas to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
belief perseverance
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Reciprocal determinism
Bandura's model in which cognition's, behaviors, and environmental factors both influence and are influenced by each other
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
basic anxiety
Horney's term for feelings of helplessness and insecurity as a result of being a small child in a world full of adults.
moving away
Horney's term for avoiding people as a way of coping with ones anxiety toward them (detached personality)
moving toward
Horney's term for connecting positively to others and seeking acceptance. (Compliant personality)
moving against
Horney's term for seeking control and power over people as a way of coping (aggressive personality)
cardinal trait
a trait that is so pervasive that the person is almost identified with the trait - Allport
central trait
in Gordon Allport's trait theory of personality, a major characteristic such as honesty or sensitivity that defines a person most of the time
secondary trait
In Allport's theory, a characteristic seen only in certain situations, such as "uncomfortable in large crowds" and "likes to drive sports cars."
introspection
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings used by functionalist and structuralist researchers
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information
top down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
scaffolding
Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level
zone of proximal development
the difference between what a child can do with help and what the child can do without any help or guidance Vygotsky term
Vygotsky
social cognitive developmental theorist - zone of proximal development and scaffolding
Kohlberg
theorist who claimed individuals went through a series of stages in the process of moral development.
object permanence
Piagetian term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot be directly seen, heard, or touched
conservation
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects - Piaget said children develop this in concrete operations
16PF
the personality test devised by Raymond Cattell to measure the 16 personality factors
William James
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; important emotion theory
Wilhelm Wundt
german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
Principles of Psychology
1890, considered to be the first modern psychology textbook by William James
James-Lange
emotion theory in which the physiological reaction occurs first and then the emotion is determined
Cannon Bard
believes the body changes and understanding of the emotion occurs simultaneously
Schacter Singer Two Factor
the body changes and understanding of emotion occur but also involve a cognitive label
Trichromatic
Theory of vision, that the eye must contain three receptors that are sensitive to red, blue and green colors. Suggested by Young and von Helmholtz.
Opponent Process Color Vision Theory
The representation of colours by the rate of firing of two types of neurons: red/green and yellow/blue
Place Theory
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the location where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
Frequency Matching Theory
theory holding that the firing rate of a neuron matches the frequency of a sound wave to determine pitch
Ossicles
bones of the middle ear that carry sound vibrations
Malleus
hammer; first of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
Incus
anvil; middle of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
Stapes
stirrup; last of the three auditory ossicles of the middle ear
rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 206)
cones
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
fovea
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
cornea
the curved protective layer through which light rays enters the eye. Light rays are bent here as well as in the lens.
optic chiasm
the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
vestibular
equilibrium (sense of balance) related to inner ear
semi circular canals
tubes in the inner ear whose fluid, when shifted by head movements, stimulates nerve cells that tell the brain about those movements
metacogntion
knowledge about own thinking
multiple intelligences
Gardner's term for distinct types of intelligence that characterize different forms of intelligent behavior
Binet
developed first intelligence test for French schools
Stanford Binet
the widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test
Terman
Created the Stanford-Binet intelligence test based on the Binet original, also did a longitudinal study of gifted children
Wechler
developed IQ test with both performance and verbal sections
collectivist culture
cultural perspective which places interdependence, cooperation and social harmony take precedence over personal goals.
individualist culture
cultural perspective which places the individual, independence and autonomy over the group.
babbling
stage of language development at about 4 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds
two word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 413)
secure attachment
Infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened
insecure attachment
Infants are wary of exploring the environment and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort or consolation
insecure avoidant
child plays happily, child continues playing after mother leaves, child ignores mothers return
insecure ambivalent
May show great upset when a parent leaves. Inconsolable when the parent returns. Desperate clinging and angry rejection during reunion
strange situation
Ainsworth's method for assessing infant attachment to the mother, based on a series of brief separations and reunions with the mother in a playoom situation
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
subordinate goals
how can I achieve that for which I strive, goals that can be achieved only by cooperating and working with others - used to reduce prejudice
self fulfilling prophecy
person's expectation of others evoke a response from them that confirms what he or she antcipated
Galton
English scientist (cousin of Charles Darwin) who explored many fields: heredity, meteorology, statistics, psychology, anthropology
Dorthea Dix
reformer dedicated to improving conditions for the mentally ill. led movement to build new mental hospitals and improve existing ones
dissociative fugue
disorder in which one travels away from home and is unable to remember details of his past, including often his identity
catatonic schizophrenia
A type of schizophrenia marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.
undifferentiated schizophrenia
mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria for any one type of schizophrenia
residual schizophrenia
a subtype of schizophrenic disorder reserved for people who have had at least one previous schizophrenic episode but are now showing an absence of prominent psychotic features; there is continuing evidence of two or more symptoms, such as marked social isolation, peculiar behaviors, blunted affect, odd beliefs or unusual perceptual experiences.
schizoid personality disorder
personality disorder in which they have no interest in relationships with other people, lack emotional responsiveness
avoidant personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by inhibition in social situations; feelings of inadequacy; oversensitivity to criticism - want relationships but are not good at it
paranoid personality disorder
type of personality disorder characterized by extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of others
narcissistic personality disorder
characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration
histrionic personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
borderline personality disorder
personality disorder characterized by lack of stability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion; impulsivity; angry outbursts; intense fear of abandonment; recurring suicidal gestures
obsessive compulsive personality disorder
personality disorder defined by a pervasive pattern of orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control. workaholics, intolerant of emotional behavior of other people.
dependent personality disorder
personality disorder in which the person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and cannot tolerate being alone
schizotypal personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by detachment from, and great discomfort in, social relationships; AND many odd perceptions, thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors
positive symptoms
symptoms of schizophrenia that are excesses of behavior or occur in addition to normal behavior; hallucinations, delusions, and distorted thinking
negative symptoms
schizophrenic symptoms such as absence of pleasure, social withdrawal, lack of speech, and flat effect
SSRI
antidepressant drug that acts by blocking the reuptake of serotonin so that more serotonin is available to act on receptors in the brain
MAOI
early antidepressants - MANY side effects
tardive dyskenisia
Shaking and involuntary movements side effect of treatment with early antipsychotic drugs
deinstitutionalization
moving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settings
flashbulb memory
vivid memory of a certain event and the incident surrounding the event; example: 9/11, first kiss, wedding day, funeral
sensory memory
the immediate, initial recording of sensory info in the memory system - VERY SHORT
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
long term potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
confabulation
when a person "remembers" info that was never stored in the memory
false memory
a distorted or fabricated recollection of something that did not actually occur
forgetting curve
A graph showing retention and forgetting over time. Ebbinghaus
overlearning
method of continued rehearsal of material after it has been memorized - a way to overcome the forgetting curve
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it - Toleman
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. Toleman
insight
the clear (and often sudden) understanding of a complex situation Kohler
contact comfort
Harlow's reseacher that determined babies needed to be held to develop normal attachment
Harlow
studied monkeys and found that feeding is not crucial for attachment but comfort is
Asch
performed famous study on conformity in which people gave an obviously incorrect answer just to conform to the group - line study
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
obedience
changing behavior in response to a demand from an authority figure
Milgram
famous teacher learner experiment on OBEDIENCE to authority
confederate
Someone who works in cooperation with the investigator conducting a research study.
Zimbardo
experimentor famous for research on how roles influence behavior and the power of the situation in a mock prison
Diffusion of Responsibility
reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect
Bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
Deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 739)
Opiates
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
Narcotics
drugs that have a sedative effect and are pain relievers derived from the opium plant
Hallucinogen
drug that causes a person to see, hear, and perceive things that do not exist
Stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Sleep Spindles
short bursts of brain waves detected in stage 2 sleep
Night Terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified - occurs in stage 4 and is not remembered
nREM
Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
somnambulism
the condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening; also known as sleepwalking - stage 4
paradoxical sleep
REM when muscles are deeply relaxed but there are high levels of brain activity
methamphetamine
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 300)
heroin
narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive
circadian rhythm
the daily biological rhythms that occur in a 24-25 hour period
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin
melatonin
Hormone released by the pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
hormone
the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them
substance abuse
the continued use of a drug despite social, legal, or health problems; doesn't require person to be addicted
substance dependence
also known as addiction; pattern of drug use that leads to compulsive drug taking; experiencing tolerance, withdrawal symptoms for at least one year
tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
phoneme
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
morpheme
in a language,smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a root word or a part of a word (such as a prefix or suffix)
syntax
grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
language acquisition devise
built-in mechanism for acquiring language - Chomsky's nature theory for language development
imprinting
process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
stranger anxiety
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age.
separation anxiety
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment.
rooting
a reflex in which a newborn turns its head in response to a gentle stimulus on its cheek
babinski
infant reflex that causes toes to fan out when soles of feet are touched
moro
reflex when baby is startled or playdropped, it puts out arms and then brings limbs to midline
zygotic
of or relating to a zygote
fetal
Stage from basic body plan through birth (weeks 9 - birth) bone cells develop
embryo
developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
prenatal
conception to birth
neonate
a baby from birth to four weeks
Wechsler Intelligence Test
intelligence tests with both VERBAL AND PERFORMANCE scales
broca's area
controls language expression-area of frontal lobe in left hemisphere that directs muscle movements involved in speech
wernicke's area
controls language in a brain area involved in language comprehension in the left temporal lobe
hypothalamus
a neural structure that directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
eros
Freud&#039;s term from the Greek word for love - the life instinct or the will to live
thanatos
Freud&#039;s term from the Greek word for death - the death or aggressive instinct which operates invisibly
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant info
anchoring heuristic
insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting value when judging probable value of some event or outcome
debriefing
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed
reciprocal determinism
Bandura's theory for how traits, cognition, behavior and environment influence personality - social cognitive theory
lateral hypothalamus
part of the hypothalamus involved in initiating, or 'turning on', eating
ventromedial hypothalamus
part of the hypothalamus involved in regulating feelings of satiety
interneuron
type of neuron that connects sensory and motor neurons
matching hypothesis
idea that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
dopamine
neurotransmitter that is in excess in individuals with schizophrenia
AcH
neurotransmitter involved in memory and movement - too little is associated with Alzheimer's
threshold
the minimimu level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
psychometrics
area of psychology that uses psychological tests to measure the mind and mental processes
Galton
Founded PSYCHOMETRICS and father of eugenics, used statistics to study differences in humans; Darwins cousin
Introspection
Technique used by Wundt and Structuralists on subjects to study consciousness
Introspection
Careful, systematic observation of one's own conscious experience - used by Structuralists and Functionalists
social impairment
lowering of performance on a given task in the pressence of others - usually a task that is not well reshearsed
synaptic cleft
another name for the synapse
Rosenhan
studied the dangers of labeling of mental patients by placing pseudo patients in mental institutions
Schizophrenia
cluster of serious psychotic disorders with major disturbances in thought, mood, and or language
identification
process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos - children align with their same sex parent to resolve the Oedipus Complex
dissociative amneisa
Inability to remember either isolated parts of the past or one's entire past; may be caused severe EMOTIONAL trauma.
extinction
diminishing of a conditioned response in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; when a response is no longer reinforced it becomes very weak and appear to disappear
spontaneous recovery
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
discrimination
the learned ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Galton
Founder of psychometrics; coined phrase nature v nurture; eugenics; concept of correlation - Darwin's cousin
eidetic
visual imagery of almost photographic accuracy
culture fair test
test that is NOT biased with respect to factors in the environment or culture in favor of one group over another
rods
photoreceptors in the periphery of the retina which respond best to dim light
PET
brain scan with visual display of brain ACTIVITY or function that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
Reticular Activating System
part of hind brain (brain stem) that regulates arousal, alertness, and consciousness - also screens out sensory info
Introspection
method of self-observation used by Wundt in which participants report their thoughts and feelings to study consciousness
Galton
Founder of psychometrics; 1st to use stats to study human differences and inheritance
Lewis Terman
longitudinal study of gifted kids
Lewis Terman
translated Binet's IQ test for U.S. - called it the Stanford Binet
heroin
highly illicit addictive opiate drug
Wolfgang Kohler
studied insight learning with chimpanzees
Dissociative Amnesia
psychological disorder - inability to recall important personal events or info; usually associated with stressful events.
nREM
the name for the the sleep stages including 1-4
Axis I
DSM-IV catagory for all psychiatric disorders EXCEPT personality dis and retardation
identification
Freud's term for when a child during the Oedipus complex resolves the issue by acting more like and aligning with the same sex parent
Axis II
DSM-IV catagory for personality disorders & mental retardation
Axis III
DSM-IV category for medical conditions that affect mental health
Axis IV
DSMIV category diagnosis of environmental problems (victim of abuse, etc.)
Axis V
DSMIV category for the rating of patients current behavior: 1= can't function and 100= functioning well
all or none law
Either a neuron completely fires or it does not fire at all.
upward social comparison
compare yourself with people who do much better than you; can sometimes inspire us to do better and sometimes lower self esteem
downward social comparison
the process of comparing yourself to less fortunate others in order to feel better about yourself
chaining
operant conditioning technique of reinforcing the connection between different parts of a sequence. like learning dance moves.
shaping
operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of desired behavior
Big 5
Term for the relatively few main traits that make up personality: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
clinical psychologist
a psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances
forensic psychologist
a psychologist who works in the legal system
door in the face
persuasion technique in which person who has refused a major request, will be more likely to comply with a smaller request
identity v role confusion
Erikson's name for the crisis of adolescence.
REM Rebound
tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
terminal buttons
Small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
right
hemisphere location of most negative emotions
left
hemisphere location for language in most people
right
hemisphere for recognition of faces
universal emotions
Ekman's theory of emotion: there is a distinctive facial expression associated with each basic feeling state. this is culturally universal
nerve deafness
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerve - often treated with cochlear implant
conduction deafness
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea - often treated with hearing aids
phrenology
now-discredited view that one can judge a person's character and mental abilities by measuring the bumps on his or her head
REM
stage where dreams occur
Stage 2
stage where sleep spindles occur
Stage 4
stage where night terrors or incubus attacks occur
REM
stage in sleep when nightmares occur