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Terms in this set (87)
scenario planning and visualization analysis
studies present and recent past environments coupled with the use of what if questions to develop a set of futuristic pictures of reality. Techniques: use of diagrams computer simulation, computerized mapping, role playing
political, economic, social and technological forces, also called environmental scanning. a list of factors that come into play for or against an organization reaching its objectives toward the future needs to be generated
asks that organizations and institutions be ready to modify their plans or future success. businesses an institutions need to adapt to changing environments when they begin to undergo change.
race riots, lynch mobs
crowds are somewhat irrational. gustave le bon explains crowd behavior as a loss of personal identification and individuality resulting from the infectious spread of emotion and action due to an original set of stimuli contagious.
originates out of spontaneous episodes of collective behavior, and develops into large-scale formal organizations in order to promote or prevent social change.
a group sharing sometimes unorthodox religious, political, or philosophical doctrines.
competitive analysis methods
questionnaire, interview, qualitative analysis
1. who are and have been your competitors (past & present)
2. what and how are they doing now and have done in the past years
3. what do you think they will be (future)
4. how have they changed in past years (past & present)
5. how do you think they will change (future)
6. what new tech. will impact (future)
conditions necessary for the development of social movements 1962. there must be a social context present for the behavior or organization to merge together in order for the episode or creation of a social movement to take place and become successful.
the routinization of charismatic authority (max weber)
involves a process in which a charismatic leader is able to routinely motivate and inspire his/her followers to follow and have an allegiance to the cause or purpose of the organization or event, as if casting a spell.
the recognition that all cultures are valid in themselves. put yourself in the shoes of others
messianic or millennium movements
both revolutionary and expressive, promises its followers total social change by miraculous means, charismatic leader. Examples: the people's temple where 900 members drank cyanide koolaid. heavens gate where members committed suicide to follow hail bop comet to board an alien spaceship
realistic but untrue stories with an ironic twist concerning recent alleged events. 1. they have a strong story appeal 2. they seem believable 3. they teach a lesson. examples: bigfoot, lock nest monster.
the relatively spontaneous social behavior of people responding to a similar stimuli or stimulus. crowd behavior: a crowd in panic, mass behavior, mass hysteria, rumors
typology of spontaneous collective behaviors 1981
a subculture that is consciously and deliberately opposed to certain central aspects of the dominant culture--hippies, skinheads, kkk
emphasizes the rationality of a crowd. ralph turner and lewis killian. crowds do not come with ready made norms. as the crowd forms, norms emerge to tell people how they are expected to act.
pop (popular) culture
culture that is mass mediated or electronic culture. involves radio, tv, movies, newspapers, magazines, the internet, gaming, cellphones, ipod.
world future society. a futurist organization
culture created by the common people in one's society. street sports basketball, square dance, storytelling
seek partial changes in some institutions and values, usually on behalf of some segments of society rather than all. example. the labor union movement, tea party, pro choice
expressive social movements
devoted to the expression of personal beliefs and feelings. religious -- the church of scientology, the kabbalah movement. ethical or lifestyle -- the buddhist movement in america, the transcendental meditation movement in the western world. the hippie counterculture
critical events analysis
focuses on why things happen and when they happen -- take place. method is brainstorming
growth factor analysis
examines what motivates growth or a slow down of growth.
external growth factors
external -- cultural changes, technology innovation, product improvement.
internal growth factors
internal drive to be #1, having a vision, or lack of one, lay offs, downsizing
protesting in the streets across america
the cognitive dimension
deals with our beliefs--ideas that are thought to be true
the material dimension
consists of the concrete tangible objects with in a culture; automobiles, highways, are, birth control pills, homes, etc.
the linguistic-relativity hypothesis aka the sapir-whorf hypothesis
1. language is the key to transmitting culture among humans.
2. speaker of a language interprets the world through their language.
3. language reveals reality
resource mobilization theory continued
for a social movement to be successful there must be a mobilization, a merging, of resources. social movements mobilize leaders and organizations to work together, rather than relying on the participation of people who happen to be moved into action
competitive environments --five competitive factors
new competitive organizations; substitutes; buying power; supplier power; competitive rivalry
the process of one culture borrowing cultural elements from another culture and modifying and adapting those elements to its own culture.
nature vs. nurture
sociologists believe we are the products of nurture rather than nature. a learned process called socialization
the global village 1960's marshall mcluhan
one day there would be an electronic super highway that would circle the globe connecting people to one another
conditions necessary for the development of collective behavior/social movements
1. structural conduciveness
2. structural strains
3. generalized beliefs
4. precipitating factors
5. mobilization of participants for action
composed of people living within defined territorial borders who share a common culture
wrote "understanding media"1964. a medium affects the society in which it plays a role not by the content delivered over the medium but by the characteristics of the medium itself. explains "the medium is the message."
consists of the material objects as well as the patterns of thinking feeling, and behaving that are passed on from generation to generation among members of society
the normative dimension
norms are rules or guidelines defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
natural calamities, salem witch hunts, the red scare
the tendency to judge other cultures by the standards of ones own culture. may lead to prejudiced and discriminatory attitudes toward others
a crowd in panic
a panic is a form o collective behavior in which people faced ith an immediate threat react in a fearful spontaneous and uncoordinated way
seek to return to the institutions and values o the past and therefore, to do away with some or all existing social institutions and cultural values. example kkk
people want answers sooner than later
wrote future shock 1970.
broad cultural principles embodying ideas about what most people in a given culture or society considers desirable. example: family, freedom, honesty, hardwork, justice.
norms, rules, that cover traditional o customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving but lac moral overtones. example: birthdays
norms of moral significance thought to be vital to the well being of a society. ex. the then commandments. are the backbone for felony la in the US.
informal positive sanction
allowance, present, pat on back, compliment, smile.
non-interactive, newspaper, books
a temporary form of conduct that is followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people, embraced zealously and disappears in a short period of time. #1 1970's fad, the pet rock
a widely circulating story whose truth is in question. paul mccartney
looking for the gap in the attitudes of people working together. method, participant observation
engages in deliberate aggressive and violent acts toward a common stimuli or stimulus for a common reason or purpose. example-- lynch mobs
use of words as a method o human communication. the key to transmitting culture from generation to generation in human societies. enable us to give meaning to the world.
a culture that shares the overall culture of the society, but also has its own distinctive values, norms and lifestyle. china town, cubans in miami, the amish in Pennsylvania, teenagers
gold rushes, people responding to a winning presidential election
the mcdonaldization of society by george ritzer
culture and institutions possess the characteristics of a fast food restaurant. components of mcdonaldization: efficiency, calculability, predictability, non human technologies: mcdonaldization industries: healthcare, funeral business, colleges and universities
a norm, more, that points out what is forbidden within a culture. ex. incest, beastiality, pedifilia, cannibalism, necraphilia, dengraphilia.
to understand the competitive environment in a business, schools, families, religious, political, economic systems
amish in the city
rumspringa- a ritual where you leave the community to test your faith and decide whether to return or not . a lesson in ethnocentrium
formal positive sanctions
raise, promotion, certificate
a form of collective behavior involving widespread anxiety caused by some unfounded belief. the martian invasion on earth in 1938 actor orson wells read "the war of the worlds" a radio dramatization of h g wells novel about an invasion from mars in a public radio broadcast in NY area.
panic exodus from a burning building. hostages taken by a terrorist group aboard an airline
strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats. interested in how the organization identifies SWOT in a systematic way
rewards and punishments used to encourage socially acceptable behavior
the systematic identification of key stakeholders and an evaluation of their influence on the future success or failure of the organization or institution
seeks to overthrow existing stratification systems and institutions and replace them with new ones. ex. the russian bolsheviks, woman's movement, civil rights movement, american revolution
a temporary collection of people who are in close enough proximity to interact with one another
a loosely organized religious movement that is independent of the religious traditions of the surrounding society
random episodes of crowd destructiveness and violence
difference between riots and mobs
rioters do not share a sense of common purpose for their destructiveness and violence as those in mobs do
norms that are formally defined and enforced by designated persons in a politically organized society
seek to uphold the values and institutions o society and generally resists attempts to change them unless their goal is to undo undesired changes that have already occurred. ex. the christian fundamentalist movement, the anti-abortion movement--pro-life
special qualities that motivate people to follow a particular leader. charismatic authority is developed through the position one occupies .
general cultural traits and practices found in every culture. ex. sports, arts, wedding, funeral
an educational program that teaches the diversity of cultures; global/nationality, ethnic, racial, and minority. a doctrine that cultures can coexist rather than have only one mainstream culture.
formal negative sanctions
citation, detention, jail time
mardi gras, rock concert, sports event
interactive: tv, gaming, cell phone, radio
a collection of people who are concerned with the same phenomenon without being in one another's presence.
informal negative sanction
insult, spanking, frowning, criticism
resource mobilization theory
oberschall 1973, tilly 1978, walsh 1981, zurcher and snow 1981. there is a relationship between organized voluntary associations and reform movements that seek to bring about social change.
culture created by the elite in one's society; debutante ball, polo, opera, ballet
culture that exists
a conception of what we would like culture to be. what is perfect.
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