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a bolus is conducted past the diaphram through the...


prevents food from entering the trachea


primary site for absorption of nutrients


gram for gram, provides the most energy

daily values

food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the

nutrient dense

provide more nutrients relative to kcalories

soy protein

textured vegetable protein is usually made of

nutritional genomics

the study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients is termed

ileocecal valve

what structure separates the colon from the small intestine


name of the projections on the inner surface of the small intestine


portion of food swallowed at one time


element found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats


fatty acid found in high amounts in olive oil


a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol


sweetener should be avoided by people with PKU


when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose


what protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing


the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake


contains live bacterial organisms

limiting amino acid

essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place

corn oil

major source of polyunsaturated fat


cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin

drawback of olestra consumption

inhibits absorption of vitamin E


the major sterol in the diet

double bonds

lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of

whey protein

it is a waste product of cheese production


lowers blood glucose levels


inactivates foreign bacteria and viruses


protect vital organs against shock.

free radical

a molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons


the body's need for water increases on a diet high in

animal fats

cannot be used to synthesize and store glycogen


when a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, the response of the muscles is to synthesize more


the main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as an


an aerobic reaction is one that requires


number of vitamin A are active in the body


condensation of acetyl CoA molecule forms

linolenic acid

can not be formed from pyruvate in human beings


tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A

vitamin k

It participates in synthesis of bone proteins


an organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme

increased thirst

most likely side effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet

fortified milk

most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet


a low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of

vegetable oil

major sources of vitamin E in the diet


research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

vitamin a

it assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur

ultraviolet light

riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to


food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as


most depleted in the body


nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism


helps maintain gastric acidity


normally begin to lose bone mass at age

vitamin c

enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract

foods with vitamin c

enhance iron absorption

calcium carbonate

among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcium-dense


what adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity


a person's highest bone density is achieved by around age

public water

most reliable source of dietary fluoride


iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream

interstitutial fluid

water that resides between cells is known as

parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

regulates the level of calcium in the blood


body's most indispensable nutrient


protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues


relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age


gestation is generally divided into equal periods of

vitamin d

breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except

artificial sweeteners

all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except

reduced quantity of milk

chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother

calcium and iron

during pregnancy these show a dramatic increase in absorption


a child with a true allergy to milk is actually allergic to the milk's

eggs peanuts and milk

most often the cause of allergies


a food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants


single most effective way to teach nutrition to children is by


difficulty swallowing

vitmain d

what vitamin does skin's capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced


a large weight gain over a short time is a sign of


a child who drinks a lot of milk at the expense of other foods is at high risk of showing signs of


term that describes any nonmilk food offered to an infant

vitamin a and c

according to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins must be listed on the package label

milk products and plant foods

allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian


what organ does the digestion process begin


consists of wavelike muscular contractions resulting from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles

emulsifies fats

function of bile


immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat-soluble vitamins and large fats


living bacteria found in yogurt are known as

complex carbohydrate

what type of nutrient is starch


principle carbohydrate of milk

fatty acids and glycerol

chemical composition of fats


type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil

coconut oil

the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form

linolenic acid

the oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed


what process results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat

amino acid pool

a mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake

complementary protein nutrition

a strategy that combines plant proteins in the same day to improve the balance of essential amino acids

low weight for height

acute protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by


describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells

glucose to pyruvate

glycolysis is the conversion of

removal of its amino group

after digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to


the body's need for water increases on a diet high in

water and carbon dioxide

in addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates

vitamin a

vitamin would be removed in the production of skim milk

vitamin a

cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of


the signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as


milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of what

vitamin b6

what vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism

vitamin b12

pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of

vitamin c

assist in collagen formation


provides ample amounts of vitamin C


deficiency of vitamin A


a child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin

free radical

a molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons

vitamin k

vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns

processed foods

greatest single source of sodium in the diet


99% of this provides rigidity for the bones and teeth


calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of

green vegetables

good sources of dietary calcium


minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems


mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine

fatty acids

cannot be used to make body proteins

amino acids

can be converted to glucose


zinc is highest in foods that also contain a high amount of

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