122 terms

Nutrition Final

a bolus is conducted past the diaphram through the...
prevents food from entering the trachea
primary site for absorption of nutrients
gram for gram, provides the most energy
daily values
food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
nutrient dense
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories
soy protein
textured vegetable protein is usually made of
nutritional genomics
the study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients is termed
ileocecal valve
what structure separates the colon from the small intestine
name of the projections on the inner surface of the small intestine
portion of food swallowed at one time
element found in proteins but not in carbohydrates and fats
fatty acid found in high amounts in olive oil
a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
sweetener should be avoided by people with PKU
when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose
what protein is intimately involved in the formation of scar tissue in wound healing
the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake
contains live bacterial organisms
limiting amino acid
essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
corn oil
major source of polyunsaturated fat
cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin
drawback of olestra consumption
inhibits absorption of vitamin E
the major sterol in the diet
double bonds
lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of
whey protein
it is a waste product of cheese production
lowers blood glucose levels
inactivates foreign bacteria and viruses
protect vital organs against shock.
free radical
a molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
the body's need for water increases on a diet high in
animal fats
cannot be used to synthesize and store glycogen
when a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, the response of the muscles is to synthesize more
the main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as an
an aerobic reaction is one that requires
number of vitamin A are active in the body
condensation of acetyl CoA molecule forms
linolenic acid
can not be formed from pyruvate in human beings
tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A
vitamin k
It participates in synthesis of bone proteins
an organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
increased thirst
most likely side effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet
fortified milk
most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet
a low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of
vegetable oil
major sources of vitamin E in the diet
research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of
vitamin a
it assists enzymes that degrade certain regions of the bone thereby allowing remodeling to occur
ultraviolet light
riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to
food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as
most depleted in the body
nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism
helps maintain gastric acidity
normally begin to lose bone mass at age
vitamin c
enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract
foods with vitamin c
enhance iron absorption
calcium carbonate
among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcium-dense
what adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity
a person's highest bone density is achieved by around age
public water
most reliable source of dietary fluoride
iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream
interstitutial fluid
water that resides between cells is known as
parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
regulates the level of calcium in the blood
body's most indispensable nutrient
protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues
relationship of overweight and health risks diminishes with age, starting after age
gestation is generally divided into equal periods of
vitamin d
breast milk as the sole source of nutrition, up to the first 6 months in healthy infants, is satisfactory for all nutrients except
artificial sweeteners
all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except
reduced quantity of milk
chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother
calcium and iron
during pregnancy these show a dramatic increase in absorption
a child with a true allergy to milk is actually allergic to the milk's
eggs peanuts and milk
most often the cause of allergies
a food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants
single most effective way to teach nutrition to children is by
difficulty swallowing
vitmain d
what vitamin does skin's capacity to synthesize the vitamin is reduced
a large weight gain over a short time is a sign of
a child who drinks a lot of milk at the expense of other foods is at high risk of showing signs of
term that describes any nonmilk food offered to an infant
vitamin a and c
according to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins must be listed on the package label
milk products and plant foods
allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian
what organ does the digestion process begin
consists of wavelike muscular contractions resulting from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles
emulsifies fats
function of bile
immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat-soluble vitamins and large fats
living bacteria found in yogurt are known as
complex carbohydrate
what type of nutrient is starch
principle carbohydrate of milk
fatty acids and glycerol
chemical composition of fats
type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil
coconut oil
the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form
linolenic acid
the oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of preformed
what process results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat
amino acid pool
a mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and dietary protein intake
complementary protein nutrition
a strategy that combines plant proteins in the same day to improve the balance of essential amino acids
low weight for height
acute protein-energy malnutrition in children is characterized by
describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells
glucose to pyruvate
glycolysis is the conversion of
removal of its amino group
after digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to
the body's need for water increases on a diet high in
water and carbon dioxide
in addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates
vitamin a
vitamin would be removed in the production of skim milk
vitamin a
cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of
the signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as
milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which of what
vitamin b6
what vitamin is involved intensively in amino acid metabolism
vitamin b12
pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of
vitamin c
assist in collagen formation
provides ample amounts of vitamin C
deficiency of vitamin A
a child with bowed legs is likely deficient in vitamin
free radical
a molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
vitamin k
vitamin is routinely given as a single dose to newborns
processed foods
greatest single source of sodium in the diet
99% of this provides rigidity for the bones and teeth
calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of
green vegetables
good sources of dietary calcium
minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems
mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine
fatty acids
cannot be used to make body proteins
amino acids
can be converted to glucose
zinc is highest in foods that also contain a high amount of