EMT

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Terms in this set (...)

Lateral recumbent (recovery) position pg.121
Lying on left or right side
Supine pg.121
Lying face up on back.
Prone pg.121
Lying face down on stomach
Fowlers position pg.121
Lying on his back with upper body elevated at a 45 to 60 degree angle
Semi-Fowlers position pg.121
Patient lying on his back with his upper body elevated at a angle less than 45 degree
Trendelenburg position pg.121
Patient lying on his back with the legs elevated higher than the head and body on a inclined plane.
Shock position pg.121
Flat on back with the legs elevated 12in.
Sagittal anatomical plane pg.121
divides body into right and left segments.
Frontal anatomical plane pg.122
divides body into front and back halves.
Transverse anatomical plane pg.122
divides body into upper and lower halves.
Anterior vs. Posterior pg.122
Anterior is toward the front. Posterior is towards the back.
Superior vs. Inferior pg.122
Superior is towards the head or point of reference. Inferior is towards the feet or below the point of reference.
Dorsal vs. Ventral pg.122
Dorsal is towards the back (spine) and Ventral is towards the front (abdomen)
Medial vs. Lateral pg.122
Medial is towards the midline or center of the body.

Lateral refers to left or right side away from midline.

Bilateral refers to both sides.
Unilateral refers to one side.
Ipsilateral refers to same size.
Contralateral refers to opposite side.
Proximal vs. Distal pg.122
Proximal means near the point of reference. Distal means far from point of reference.
Plantar vs. Palmar pg.122
Plantar refers to the sole of the foot.

Palmer refers to palm of the hand.
Midclavicular vs. Midaxillary pg.122
Midclavicular refers to the center of each collarbone. Extends to anterior thorax,

Midaxillary refers to the center of the armpit. Extends to ankle.
EMR vs. EMT pg.5
EMR uses basic airway, ventilation, and oxygen therapy devices. Take vital signs, provide stabilization of spine and suspected extremity injuries, eye irrigation, bleeding control, emergency moves, CPR, AED, and emergency childbirth care.( apparently they pull it out there asses cuz the book doesn't specify an ambulance or other emergency vehicle for them)

EMT does the same shit but also are able to transport, and use advanced oxygen therapy and ventilation equipment, pulse oximetry, use of automatic B/P monitoring equipment, and limited medication administration. All of this can be found on the ambulance.
(WMD) Weapons of Mass Destruction! pg.1233
Intended to cause widespread and indiscriminate DEATH! and DESTRUCTION!

C- chemical B- biological
B- biological N- nuclear/radioactive
R- radiological I- incendiary
N- nuclear C- chemical
E- explosive E- explosive

Consider PPE in large quantities to support triage, extrication, decontamination, and clean up phases.
Which cable do u cut first in a battery?
Negative to positive
START Triage System pg.1220
For simple Triage and Rapid transport. remember RPM:
Respiratory status
Perfusion status
Mental status
MCI different areas? pg.1219
Triage Unit- sorts patients by how critical they are and assigns priorities for emergency care and transport.

Treatment Unit- emergency care provided to patients in this unit based on priority.

Transport unit- patients moved to ambulances or helicopters to go to hospital.

Staging unit- Ambulances, helicopters, and additional equipment are held in this area until they are assigned to a particular task.

Morgue unit- deceased casualties are moved to this unit where they are held and processed.
Components of Incident command system (ICS)? pg.1220
Incident Commander
Operations Section Chief
Triage Unit Treatment Unit Transport Unit
What does the Blue diamond blacker stand for? pg.1202
Health Hazards.

4- can be lethal
3- serious or permanent injury
2- temporary incapacitation or residual injury
1- significant irritation
0- no hazard past ordinary combustibles
Define Hazardous material pg.1197
a material that poses a threat or unreasonable risk to life, health, or property if not properly controlled during manufacture, processing, packaging, handling, storage, transportation, use, and disposal.

Hazardous material includes waste, chemicals, and other dangerous products. The principle dangers they produce is toxicity, flammability, and reactivity.
Pneumothorax vs. Tension Pneumothorax. pg.950
Pneumothorax is the accumulation of air in the pleural cavity, causing collapse of a portion of the lung.

Tension Pneumothorax is an immediately life threatening condition resulting from a pneumothorax that continues to trap air in the thoracic cavity with no relief or escape.
Whats in the Right Upper Quadrant? pg.127
Liver(majority)
Right Kidney
Colon
Pancreas(small portion)
Gallbladder
Small intestine
Whats in the Right Lower Quadrant? pg.127
Colon
Small intestines
Large Intestine
Right Ureter
Appendix
Right Ovary(female)
Right Fallopian tube(female)
Whats in the Left Upper Quadrant? pg.127
Liver(small portion)
Spleen
Left Kidney
Stomach
Colon
Pancreas(majority)
Small intestines
Whats in the Left Lower Quadrant? pg.127
Colon
Small intestine
Large Intestine
left ureter
left ovary(female)
left fallopian tube(female)
Placenta Previa vs. Abrupto Placenta pg. 993
Placenta Previa is a major cause of THIRD trimester bleeding. Placenta is placed near or over the opening of the cervix. The placenta is prematurely torn from the lower portion of the uterine wall resulting in excessive bleeding. No pain! look for signs of hypovolemic shock.

Abrupto Placenta is the abnormal separation of the placenta from the uterine wall prior to birth of the baby which causes severe maternal blood loss and poor gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between the fetus and placenta. Includes constant abdominal pain(hallmark sign), and vaginal bleeding.
Gravida vs. Para.
Gravida refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, regardless of whether the pregnancies were interrupted or resulted in a live birth. "nulligravida" is a woman who has never been pregnant.

Para means number of deliveries.
Define Kyphosis
The disks located between the vertebrae of the spine start to narrow, which causes the characteristic curvature of the spine, seen in two out of every three elderly patients.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic Nonketonic Syndrome(HHNS)
A diabetic complication that is more common to the elderly patient with diabetic mellitus.

Blood Glucose level elevates because of inadequate insulin secretion or action on target cells, but enough insulin is secreted to keep mass amounts of fat from being metabolized for energy.

Can cause:
Polydipsia(excessive thirst)
Polyuria(excessive urination)
Dry Oral Mucous membranes
Dizziness
Confusion
Seizures
PTSD
Patients with PTSD usually experience guilt, shame, avoidance of others, depression, paranoia, hostility, agitation and anger.

Physical pain can be an attempt by the body to manage the high levels of emotional distress associated with the trauma without the mental stigma- diverting the mental anguish to physical anguish.

Early signs of aging such as heart disease, type II diabetes, and loss of gray matter are physical affects of PTSD
Pathway of blood through the heart
Epiglottis
a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to cover the opening of the windpipe.
APGAR
Appearance (skin color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace (reflex irritability), Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration. for newborn infants
3 stages of Labor
The first stage of labor is the longest and involves three phases: Early Labor Phase -The time of the onset of labor until the cervix is dilated to 3 cm. Active Labor Phase - Continues from 3 cm. until the cervix is dilated to 7 cm. Transition Phase - Continues from 7 cm. until the cervix is fully dilated to 10

The second stage of labor begins when the cervix is completely dilated (open), and ends with the birth of your baby. Contractions push the baby down the birth canal, and you may feel intense pressure, similar to an urge to have a bowel movement.

The third stage is the delivery of the placenta and is the shortest stage.
Hospice Care
Hospice care is end-of-life care. A team of health care professionals and volunteers provides it. They give medical, psychological, and spiritual support. The goal of the care is to help people who are dying have peace, comfort, and dignity.
Sections of the Spine
Conjunctivitis
Inflammation or infection of the outer membrane of the eyeball and the inner eyelid.
Glascow Coma Scale (GCS)
The five rights
The Five Rights of Medication Administration. One of the recommendations to reduce medication errors and harm is to use the "five rights": the right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right route, and the right time.
SOAP
subjective, objective, assessment, and plan
SAMPLE
Symptoms, Allergies, Medications, Past medical history, Last oral intake, and Events leading up to present injury
Standard of Care
the standard of care is the only degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who is under a duty of care. The requirements of the standard are closely dependent on circumstances.
Primary stimulus to cause breathing pg.175
Hypercarbic drive. Hypercarbic generally defined as an abnormally-high level of carbon dioxide
Secondary stimulus to breath pg.175
Hypoxic Drive=is a form of respiratory drive in which the body uses oxygen chemoreceptors instead of carbon dioxide receptors to regulate the respiratory cycle.
Calculate the respiratory rate
The respiratory rate is the number of breaths that a patient takes each minute. The rate should be taken when the patient is at rest, and it is assessed by counting the number of times the chest rises in one minute. Common factors that influence respiration rate are as follows: Age
Medical terms for a slow and fast heart rate?
slow= bradycardia fast-tachycardia
Medical terms for slow and fast breathing?
Slow= bradypnea fast=tachypnea
Respiration vs. Ventilation
resperation=the action of breathing.

Ventilation=The exchange of air between the lungs and the atmosphere so that oxygen can be exchanged for carbon dioxide in the alveoli (the tiny air sacs in the lungs).
how to measure OPA?
The OPA is sized by measuring from the center of the mouth to the angle of the jaw, or from the corner of the mouth to the earlobe.
how to measure NPA?
Measure the NPA from the victim's earlobe to the tip of the nostril. Ensure that the diameter of the NPA is not larger than the nostril.
Inhalation vs. Exhalation
Inhalation=the action of inhaling or breathing in.

Exhalation= the process or action of exhaling.
Epi Pen Side Effects?
Can cause tachycardia, pallor(unhealthy pale appearance), excitability, anxiousness, dizziness, headache, nausea, and vomiting.
Aspirin
Used in field for cardiac/chest pain patients for cardiac benefits. Given along with Nitroglycerin, only with orders from medical direction. May be carried or be patients own.
Medication in scope of practice?
Aspirin, Epinephrine, Activated Charcoal, Oxygen, Oral Glucose, Nitroglycerine, prescribed Metered Dose Inhaler(MDI'S).
Prescribed medications can assist in giving?
MDI'S, Nitroglycerine, Epinephrine.
2 EMT perform CPR on a Adult patient.
30/2. if there in a shockable rhythm its V-fib for an AED shock. 100-120 compressions per-minute.
Cardiac Arrest Rhythms.
These four rhythms are pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), asystole, and pulseless electrical activity (PEA).

VT and VF are both shockable rhythms. PEA and systole are not.

PEA usually comes after effective defibrillation.
How to determine a unresponsive patient?
AVPU.
Are they Alert? to Verbal? or Pain? if not there unresponsive
What happens if B/P cuff is to small on a patient?
using too small of a blood pressure cuff can cause a patient's systolic blood pressure measurement to increase 10 to 40 mmHg.
A 20-year-old female patient is found unresponsive. The first step of the secondary assessment for her is to?
Conduct a rapid medical assessment.
Obstructive Shock
Obstructive shock is a form of shock associated with physical obstruction of the great vessels or the heart itself. Pulmonary embolism and cardiac tamponade are considered forms of obstructive shock. Obstructive shock has much in common with cardiogenic shock, and the two are frequently grouped together.
Cardiogenic Shock
Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can't pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the body. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a severe heart attack. This damage prevents the heart's main pumping chamber, the left ventricle (VEN-trih-kul), from working well.
Patient with a gunshot wound to the chest?
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Helicopter Safety.
Always crouch when approaching or leaving a helicopter.

Approach a helicopter from downhill.

Never go by tail rotor
make sure pilot can see you, come from the front.
Scene suddenly becomes unsafe.
Leave the scene immediately and wait for S/O to tell you the scene is controlled.
tendonitis?
A condition in which the tissue connecting muscle to bone becomes inflamed.
Last signs of shock?
Decreased Blood Pressure
How EMT treats shock?
Take body substance isolation precautions.
Maintain an open airway.
High concentration oxygen; assist ventilations or administer CPR if indicated.
Control external bleeding.
Elevate legs 8" - 12" if no lower body or spinal injuries.
Splint fractures.
Prevent loss of body heat.
Transport immediately
signs and symptoms of shock
Cool, clammy skin
Pale or ashen skin
Rapid pulse
Rapid breathing
Nausea or vomiting
Enlarged pupils
Weakness or fatigue
Dizziness or fainting
Changes in mental status or behavior, such as anxiousness or agitation
A patient in shock with abdominal pain indicates he noticed lot of blood in the toilet after having a bowel movement this morning. The EMT should suspect what type of shock?
Hemorrhagic hypovolemic
Arterial Bleeding
Arteries spurt. Veins don't.Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to tissue. Veins drain the blood back to the heart to resupply it with oxygen.
Arteries pump. Veins dump.

Control bleeding, apply tourniquet proximal to bleed. raise the area of bleed if possible.
Signs and Symptoms of schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is characterized by thoughts or experiences that seem out of touch with reality, disorganized speech or behavior, and decreased participation in daily activities. Difficulty with concentration and memory may also be present.
Signs and Symptoms of Phobia?
sweating.
trembling.
hot flushes or chills.
shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
a choking sensation.
rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
pain or tightness in the chest.
a sensation of butterflies in the stomach.
Signs and Symptoms for Bipolar Disorder?
Manic episodes may include symptoms such as high energy, reduced need for sleep, and loss of touch with reality. Depressive episodes may include symptoms such as low energy, low motivation, and loss of interest in daily activities. Mood episodes last days to months at a time and may also be associated with suicidal thoughts.
Signs and Symptoms of Paranoia?
Auditory disturbances - hearing things that are not real (more on hallucinations and delusions)
Unexplained anger.
Emotional disconnectedness.
Severe anxiety and agitation.
Argumentative behavior.
Violent tendencies (more on violent behaviors)
Signs and Symptoms of Barrel trauma?
ear pain.
feeling of pressure in the ears, as if you were underwater.
nosebleed.
moderate to severe hearing loss or difficulty.
ear drum injury.
signs and symptoms of a allergic reaction?
Symptoms vary and may include swelling, rash, itching, and shortness of breath.
Signs and symptoms of a UTI. Problem with a females urinary system
A burning feeling when you urinate.
A frequent or intense urge to urinate, even though little comes out when you do.
Pain or pressure in your back or lower abdomen.
Cloudy, dark, bloody, or strange-smelling urine.
Feeling tired or shaky.
heat cramps
Heat cramps, a type of heat illness, are muscle spasms that result from loss of large amount of salt and water through exercise. Heat cramps are associated with cramping in the abdomen, arms and calves. This can be caused by inadequate consumption of fluids or electrolytes.
Heat exhaustion
Heat exhaustion is a condition whose symptoms may include heavy sweating and a rapid pulse, a result of your body overheating. It's one of three heat-related syndromes, with heat cramps being the mildest and heatstroke being the most severe.
heat stroke
Heatstroke is a condition caused by your body overheating, usually as a result of prolonged exposure to or physical exertion in high temperatures. This most serious form of heat injury, heatstroke can occur if your body temperature rises to 104 F (40 C) or higher.
What happens when your spine is damaged.
It can rupture, a ruptured spleen can cause life-threatening bleeding into your abdominal cavity.

Signs and symptoms of a ruptured spleen include:

Pain in the upper left abdomen
Tenderness when you touch the upper left abdomen
Left shoulder pain, particularly if you also have cuts and bruises on the left chest or side
Confusion, lightheadedness or dizziness
Dosage of Activated Charcoal?
1gram per kg for both adult and child.
Total adult= 50 to 100 grams
Total Pediatric= 12.5 to 25 grams
Epi auto injector side effects?
Faster, irregular (wrong) or "pounding" heartbeat.
Throbbing headache.
Paleness.
Feelings of over excitement, anxiety, or fear.
Weakness or shakiness.
Dizziness.
Nausea and vomiting.
Sweating.
Most common route of poisoning?
Overdose is a special type of poisoning, where a medication is taken in such excess quantity that it becomes toxic to the body. Poisons and toxins can enter the body by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption through the skin or mucous membrane. Ingestion: most common route of poisoning.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood.

Symptoms include thirst, frequent urination, nausea, abdominal pain, weakness, fruity-scented breath, and confusion.
ICP signs and symptoms
Cushing reflex, Papilledema, cerebral edema
Epidermal hematoma
is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull.
cerebral contusion
a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue
open head injury
An open head injury, sometimes also called a penetrating head injury, results when an object penetrates the skull and enters the brain. Open head injuries are usually focal, which means that they affect a specific area of brain tissue.
Concussion
A brain injury caused by a blow to the head or a violent shaking of the head and body.

Symptoms may include headache, confusion, lack of coordination, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, ringing in the ears, sleepiness, and excessive fatigue.
concern for a patient with a mouth injury?
obstructed airway
superficial vs. partial thickness burn
Burns that affect only the superficial skin layers are known as superficial or first-degree burns. They appear red without blisters and pain typically lasts around three days.

burn involving the epidermis and dermis and usually forming blisters that may be superficial. If it involves all levels of the dermis, the skin appendages are preserved. Reepithelialization occurs from squamous cell preserved in the skin appendages. Synonym(s): second-degree burn.
layers of the skin
The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone. The dermis, beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The deeper subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is made of fat and connective tissue.
Insulin
Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that allows your body to use sugar (glucose) from carbohydrates in the food that you eat for energy or to store glucose for future use. Insulin helps keeps your blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia).
status-epilepticus
tatus epilepticus (SE) is an epileptic seizure of greater than five minutes or more than one seizure within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them. Previous definitions used a 30-minute time limit.
syncope episode
Syncope, also known as fainting, is defined as a short loss of consciousness and muscle strength, characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery. It is due to a decrease in blood flow to the entire brain usually from low blood pressure.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA, Mini-Stroke)
A neurological event with the signs and symptoms of a stroke, but which go away within a short period of time. Also called a mini-stroke, a TIA is due to a temporary lack of adequate blood and oxygen (ischemia) to the brain.
ischemic stroke?
Damage to the brain from interruption of its blood supply.
respiration rate is at 6, what do you do?
Bag them.
Signs and Symptoms of Left Ventricular Heart failure.
Cough (produces frothy or blood-tinged mucus)
Decreased urine production.
Difficulty lying down; need to sleep with the head elevated to avoid shortness of breath.
Fatigue, weakness, faintness.
Irregular or rapid pulse.
Sensation of feeling the heartbeat (palpitations)
Shortness of breath.

fluid may back up to lungs! push it out with a CPAP
3 components of cardiovascular system.
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

This system has three main functions: Transport of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells throughout the body and removal of metabolic wastes (carbon dioxide, nitrogenous wastes).
Causes of pediatric cardiac arrest
Causes of cardiac arrest in children and infants include:
Airway and breathing problems.
Traumatic injury or an accident (e.g., motor-vehicle collision, drowning, electrocution or poisoning).
A hard blow to the chest.
Congenital heart disease.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Tricuspid Valve function?
The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

The function of the valve is to prevent back flow of blood into the right atrium.
First actions for a unresponsive patient?
Check for pulse and respirations. if absent they are in cardiac arrest, start CPR immediately.
What is diminished lung sounds?
The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. ... Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased or absent breath sounds, and abnormal breath sounds. Absent or decreased sounds can mean: Air or fluid in or around the lungs (such as pneumonia, heart failure, and pleural effusion)
Lung sounds
lung sounds are referenced as crackles (rales), wheezes (rhonchi), and stridor
Upper airway sounds
Stridor: Wheeze-like sound heard when a person breathes. Usually it is due to a blockage of airflow in the windpipe (trachea) or in the back of the throat. Wheezing: High-pitched sounds produced by narrowed airways. They are most often heard when a person breathes out (exhales).
Pathophysiology of seizures
Seizures are caused by paroxysmal discharges from groups of neurons, which arise as a result of excessive excitation or loss of inhibition. The key unit of neurotransmission is the synapse, and the fundamental components of synapses are ion channels.
Perfusion
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through".
function of left atrium
Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs enters the left atrium through the pulmonary vein. The blood is then pumped into the left ventricle chamber of the heart through the mitral valve. From there, the blood is ready to be pumped into the body to deliver oxygen-rich blood to all bodily tissues.
Reaching Person in Water
EMERGENCY
1. Don't enter water unless specifically trained to perform in-water rescue
2. Get help from trained responder
3. Can help by reaching assists, throwing assists, or wading assists
4. Start by talking to person, let them know help is coming (if too noisy, use non verbal)
5. Tell them what to do, like grasping line, ring buoy, etc. Ask person to move to you by using back float w/ slight leg movements or small strokes
6. Some people can reach safety by themselves w/ calm & encouraging assistance of something calling to them
Ankle Drag
EMERGENCY
aka foot drag
1. Move person who is too large to carry/move any other way
2. Person's arms crossed on chest
3. Pull person in straight line
4. Don't bump head
Blanket Drag
EMERGENCY
1. When equipment is limited
2. Keep person between you & blanket
3. Take half of blanket, place against side, then roll person towards you, reach over and place blanket under person, then roll person onto blanket
4. Gather blanket at head and move person
Clothes Drag
EMERGENCY
1. Conscious or Unconscious
2. FOR suspected head, neck, spinal injury
3. Grasp clothes behind neck (head cradled by clothing & responder's arms
4. VERY EXHAUSTING for RESPONDER, may cause back strain even if correct
Pack-strap carry
1. EMERGENCY
2.Conscious or Unconscious
3. Unconscious = need 2nd responder to help position
4. Have person stand, position self w/ back to person, back straight, knees bent, shoulder in their armpits
5. Cross person's arms infront & grasp wrists
6. Lean forward, pull person up onto back, walk to safety
7. Maybe use one hand for wrists if they're small to open doors
8. Not for head, neck, spinal injury
Two-person seat carry
1. Need 2 responders
2. Conscious & not seriously injured
3. One arm behind thighs, one behind back
4. Interlock arms, make sure weight on shoulders
5. Not for head, neck, spinal injury
Emergency move
immediate danger to patient or rescuer
urgent move
immediate threat to life and must be quickly transported.
non urgent move
no immediate threat to life exists
kidney failure cause?
Acute kidney injury has three main causes: A sudden, serious drop in blood flow to the kidneys. Heavy blood loss, an injury, or a bad infection called sepsis can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) also can harm the kidneys.
anaerobic metabolism
Is the creation of energy through the combustion of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. This occurs when the lungs cannot put enough oxygen into the bloodstream to keep up with the demands from the muscles for energy. It generally is used only for short bursts of activity.
function of respiratory system
The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which function to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide as we breathe. The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide.
body mechanics
exercises designed to improve posture, coordination, and stamina.
open ended vs. closed ended question?
An open-ended question is designed to encourage a full, meaningful answer using the subject's own knowledge and/or feelings.

It is the opposite of a closed-ended question, which encourages a short or single-word answer.
protect self in refusal situation:
make sure patient is able to make a rational decision. try to convince them to accept treatment or transport, consult medical direction if needed clearly document what was said to the patient, his response, and have him sign a refusal. encourage patient to seek help if certain symptoms present.

contact medical direction if unsure of patients ability to make a rational decision.
implied consent
when you assume who is unconscious or who is not competent would consent to emergency care.
expressed consent
must be obtained by every concise, mentally competent adult before treatment is started.
involuntary consent
applied when dealing with mentally incompetent patient
consent to treat a minor
must be obtained from legal guardian of minor. but if parent or guardian can't be reached it goes under implied consent.
informed consent
patient must be informed about care to be provided and the associated risks and consequences.
PPE used for accident scenes?
...
Hepatitis
a disease characterized by inflammation of Liver.

Hepatitis B
A serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus that's easily preventable by a vaccine.

Hepatitis C
An infection caused by a virus that attacks the liver and leads to inflammation.
Alcoholic hepatitis
Liver inflammation caused by drinking too much alcohol.
Autoimmune hepatitis
Inflammation in the liver that occurs when the immune system attacks the liver.

Hepatitis D
A serious liver disease caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus.

Hepatitis A
A highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus.

Hepatitis E
A liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus.
effects of Beta1 medication?
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how to suction?
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benefits of Beta2 medication?
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Baseline Vital signs? Children pg.191
Neonate: RR 30 to 40, Pulse 100-160, B/P 70-90 systolic, temp 98-100

Infant: RR 20 to 30, Pulse 100-120, B/P 90 systolic, temp 98-100

Toddlers: RR 20-30, Pulse 80-130, B/P 70-100 systolic, temp 98.6-99.6

Pre-School: RR 20-30, Pulse 80-120, B/P 80-110 systolic, temp 98.6-99.6

School age: RR 20-30, Pulse 70-110, 80-120 systolic, temp 98.6

Adolescent: RR 12-20, Pulse 55-105, B/P 100-120 systolic, temp 98.6
when to be suspicious of diabetic patient? normal Glucose range?
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Rollover collision effects on body?
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determine total speed of impact:
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mechanism of convection causing loss of body heat?
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transport indwelling catheter?
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how is a intraventricular shunt beneficial?
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obtaining info from a patient with an altered mental status or dementia.
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Geriatric patients are most susceptible to what respiratory problems?
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cause of a high fever in a 2month old?
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what to do after baby head is delivered?
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signs and symptoms of a spontaneous abortion?
Symptoms include fluid, blood, or tissue passing from the vagina and pain in the belly or lower back, nausea or vomiting.
how to treat evisceration?
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age ranges in children.
Neonate- from birth to 1 month
Infant- 1 month to 1 year
Toddlers- 1-3 years
Pre-School- 3-5
School age- 5-12
Adolescent- 13-19
what to do with a flail segment?
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what signs in the secondary assessment sujest spinal cord injury?
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Anatomy of chest: Mediastinal injury
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Majority of traumatic injuries for Geriatric patients are caused by?
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What do you do after applying vacuum splint?
The air is then sucked out of the splint, causing it to become rigid in its position of placement.
What happens if a splint is applied to loose?
aggravate the bone or joint injury by allowing it to move. Cause or aggravate damage to the tissue, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels from excessive bone or joint movement.
Parts of nervous system?
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerve fibers that branch off from the spinal cord and extend to all parts of the body, including the neck and arms, torso, legs, skeletal muscles and internal organs.
Quadriplegic injury
Quadriplegia is paralysis to some degree in all four limbs.
first priority on all calls?
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most collisions occur when?
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What to do with a school bus offloading children?
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Resource Guide Book
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Baseline Vital Signs Adult pg.191+271
Early Adult: RR 16-20, Pulse 60-100, B/P 120/80, Temp 98.6

Middle Adult: RR 16-20, Pulse 60-100, B/P 120/80, temp 98.6

Elderly: Pulse 90