177 terms

Chapter 16 Conquest of the West

Although the image of the nineteenth century West is of thinly populated, wide open spaces, by the late 1870's___________ already had almost 250,000 inhabitants.
San Francisco
In 1882 Congress passed a law in effect stopped immigration from
Which of the following statements about immigrants in the West in the late 1800's is false
Although a few did live in the West, Irish and German immigrants almost exclusively immigrated to Eastern states.
On the eve of the Civil War, the American Indians in the West
Still occupied about 50 percent of the United States.
_________were/was essential to the culture, religion, and sustenance of the Plains Indians.
The United States treated each tribe
as a separate sovereign nation.
In 1851, the government negotiated a new policy with the Plains tribes based on a divide-and-conquer strategy. This was known as the "________" policy.
In its treaties with Native Americans, the American government generally
showed little interest in honoring them.
One of the worst massacres committed by white troops in the Indian Wars occurred in 1864 at
Sand Creek.
In 1867, the government tried a new strategy toward the Plains Indians
forcing the reservation Native Americans to become farmers like other Americans.
One of the reasons that a relative handful of Indians could hold off the battle-hardened Civil War veterans of the U.S. Army was because
Indians were superb guerrilla warriors- the best cavalry soldiers in the world.
General George A. Custer's greatest mistake at Little Bighorn was that he
Grossly underestimated the number of Indians.
The two reasons why fighting on the Plains slackened after Custer's 1876 defeat are
the building of the transcontinental railroad and the destruction of the buffalo.
The ability of the Plains Indians to resist white expansion was severely damaged by the
Destruction of buffalo.
In 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act, which was intended to
persuade Indians to abandon their traditional tribal cultures.
Under the ___________, Indians who accepted land allotments , lived "separate from any tribe," and "adopted the habits of civilized life" were allowed to become U.S. citizens.
Dawes Severalty Act.
Partly as a result of the Ghost Dance Movement, the army killed some 150 Teton Sioux at ____________ in________________.
Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
In comparison to its human resources, the natural resources of the nation in the late nineteenth century were
Even more ruthlessly and thoughtlessly exploited.
Probably the most famous of all the precious metal strikes in the West, the site of the Comstock Lode and the Big Bonanza, was
Virginia City, Nevada.
One result of the gold and silver rushes of the late nineteenth century was
an improved financial position for America in world trade.
Roughing it (1872) by Mark Twain provides us with our most famous pictures of the
mining frontier.
The Homestead Act of 1862
failed to fill the West with 160-acre family farms because most landless Americans were simply too poor to become farmers.
The gigantic corporation-controlled farms that were created to take advantage of the newly available acreage in the South and West were known as
bonanza farms.
In the decades following the Civil War, which area of the country became known as the "breadbasket" of America?
the Plains states west of the Mississippi
Which of the following is true of the frontier farmers of the 1870's and 1880's?
They farmed the land with the little knowledge or concern for preventing erosion or preserving fertility.
The first federal land grant to a railroad was allotted in 1850 to the
Illinois Central
The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 set the pattern for government land grants by giving the builders of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads
five square miles of public land on each side of their right-of- way for every mile of track laid.
Transcontinental railroads used their zone of "indemnity" lands to prevent
homesteading along the railroad
The ability to finance the building of the railroad with money received from federal land grants
meant that the railway operators could pay their workers much higher average wages.
The two railroads joined in 1869 to form the first transcontinental railroad were the
Central Pacific and the Union Pacific
The only transcontinental railroad built without land grants was the
Great Northern.
Cattle herd were driven across the unsettled grasslands of the ______________Trail on their way to the railroad at Abilene, Kansas.
The discovery that cattle could feed on the prairie grasses of the public domain of the northern plains led to the development of
open-range ranching.
Open-range ranching in the late nineteenth century required
control of a stable water supply.
_____________ was a former slave who became famous as the cowboy nicknamed "Deadwood Dick"
Nat Love
What accounted for the profitability of open-range ranching?
high demand and cheap transportation
The future director of the United States Geological Service, ___________, advocated a system for dealing with the semiarid condition of western lands.
John Wesley Powell
Major John Wesley Powell belied that western lands should be divided into three classes. Which of the following is NOT one of these classes?
prairie land
Barbed wire was invented by
Joseph F. Glidden
Barbed wire destroyed the open-range cattle industry because it
prevented the free movement of cattle
Open-range cattle raising was virtually ended by the
combination of the drought of 1886 and the blizzards of 1886-1887
The "conquest of the frontier" was
a way to evade the destructive consequences of national policies by making them seem to be an expression of human progress.
By the end of the nineteenth century, U.S. industrial capacity
dwarfed both Great Britain's and Germany's
In the 25 years after the civil war, railroads
were probably the most significant element in American economic development.
The emphasis in railroad construction after 1865 was on
organizing integrated systems
In the late nineteenth century "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, Thomas A. Scott, and Jay Gould organized
complex, transcontinental railroad lines.
Following the Civil War, most southern railroad systems were
controlled by Northern capitalists
American land-grant railroads in the late nineteenth century
sent agents overseas to recruit likely settlers and purchasers of railroad land
After the railroads, the second most important development in America's industrial advance in the late nineteenth century was the transformation of
iron manufacturing
The ____________process directed a steam of air into a mass of molten iron, burning off impurities, and greatly lowered the prices of steel.
Technological changes in the petroleum industry in the late nineteenth century
occurred rapidly and put a premium on refining efficiency
Known as the "wizard of Menlo Park," the inventor of the phonograph and the electric light bulb was
Thomas A. Edison
Which of the following interests of Alexander Graham Bell's led to the invention of the telephone?
deaf education
What was the relationship between competition and monopoly in American industry during the post- Civil War era?
deflation combined with fierce competition to cause the expansion to lead to concentration
From 1873 to 1893, the economy was characterized by
intense competition for markets
Railroads commonly encouraged large shippers to use their lines by
giving them rebates
As a result of the intense competition among railroads,
the railroads were unstable financially and vulnerable to any downturn in the business cycle.
The first giant corporations, capitalized in the hundreds of millions of dollars, were
steel corporations.
Andrew Carnegie dominated the___________industry
Andrew Carnegie was one of the first great tycoons to realize the importance of
developing technological improvements
When J.P. Morgan assembled United States Steel, he
formed the first billion-dollar corporation.
By the middle of the 1800's ___________monopolized the oil industry in the United States
John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller's success was due primarily to his
bold planning and risk-taking.
The theory of evolution by natural selection, which helped Americans justify their exploitation of others, was the work of
Charles Darwin
In general, as industry expanded
Americans saw economic regulation as a way to release human energy and increase the area in which business could freely operate.
a prominent advocate of social darwinism,William Graham Sumner was identified with the phrase
it's root hog ,or die
most americans reacted to the growth of huge industrial and financial organizations and the increasing complexity of economic relations by
fearing monopolistic power,yet being greedy for all the new goods and services
henry George, author of progress and poverty, advocated
laissez-faire economics
Henry George,Edward Bellamy,and Henry Demarest Lloyd wer all late nineteenth century
radical reformers
the novelist who described america evolving into and ideal socialist state was
Edward Bellamy
which of the following compared nineteenth century society to a stagecoach in which the favored few rode in the comfort while the masses pulled them along life's route
Edward Bellamy
in the cooperative commonwealth, Laurence Gronlund
provided the first serious attempt to explain the ideas of karl marx to americans
the national grange of the patrons of the husbandry was founded in 1867 by
oliver h kelley
granger controlled legislature attempted to
regulate railroad rates
the supreme court decision in the wabash case concerned
early railroad regulation
the federal regulatory board,established in 1887 by congress to supervise the affairs of railroads ,investigate complaints, and issue "cease and desist" orders against railroads acting illegally, was the
interstate commerce commission
the creation of interstate commerce commission in 1887
challenged the philosophy of laissez-faire
in 1890,congress tried to restore competition by outlawing the restraint of the interstate trade by corporate monopolies with the.....act
sherman antirust
the sherman antirust act was drastically limited by the supreme court in
united states v E.C.knight company
"doubtless the power to the control the manufacture of a given thing involves , in a certain sense ,the control of its disposition .... the exercise of that power may result in bringing the operation of commerce into play , it does not control it,and affects its only incidentally and indirectly " the source of this quote is
united states v.E.C.Knight company
the first union to welcome blacks,women and immigrants into its rank was
Knights of labor
as a result of the .... membership in the knights of labor declined quickly because the public associated unions with violence and radicalism
Haymarket square riot
established in the 1886 the .... was the prime example of "bread and butter" unionism
american federation of labor
the dramatic labor troubles of 1877 were
more violent and destructive than any previous strike in america
the leader of the american railway union in its dramatic 1894 strike against the pullman palace car company was
Eugene Debs
president cleveland intervened in the pullman strike on the pretext that
that the mail had to be delivered
in the late nineteenth century wealth,power,and influence were
increasingly concentrated among the largest financiers
as a result of the centralization and the concentration of the industry in the late nineteenth century
efficiency increased in industries where close coordination and output, distribution and sales was important
in the late 1800's, the courts seemed most concerned with protecting
the intrest of the rich and powerful
which of the following described most middle class families of the late nineteenth century
they lost some of the reforming zeal and moral fervor they typically had before the civil war
in the Thorstein veblen's theory of leisure class he
theorized that middle class consumption was done mainly for superficial purposes
in general .... workers were usually well off as a result of late nineteenth century industrialization
skilled industrial
as a result of the of the late nineteenth century industrial development
personal contact between employer tended to disappear
in the new types of work women found in the late nineteenth century,they
were often hired as salespersons in department stores because managers considered them easier to control than men
in the late nineteenth century ,educated middle class women dominated the new profession of
early social workers who visited working class homes in the late nineteenth century discovered
considerable differences in the standard living among families in the same occupation
which of the following statements about society in the late 1800's is true
the gap between rich and poor was growing
census records reveal that the average urban american of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
experienced considerable geographical mobility
after 1870, american public education
changed steadily in response to the many social and economic changes of the era
in the late 1800s secondary education
was accessible to those with special abilities or from well off families
real life rag to riches experiences ,like those of Andrew carnegie ,were
rare exceptions
the main reason for migration to united states during the late nineteenth century was the
collapse of the peasant economy in northern Europe
before 1882, american restricted .... from immigration to the united states
almost no one
beging in the 1800's , the source of american immigration shifted to new immigrants from
southern and eastern Europe
Both the new immigrants of the 1800's and the old irish immigrants of the 1840's were mostly
the so called"birds of passage " during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were
a minority of all who entered the us
One of the causes which eventually led to restrictions on immigration was the
social Darwinists' fears that immigrants would undermine American "racial purity"
Criticisms of immigrants as "longhaired, wild-eyed, bad-smelling, atheistic, reckless foreign wretches" and as "Europe's human and inhuman rubbish" were characteristic of
The new nativism of the late nineteenth century was exemplified by the
American Protective Association
Although there were additional factors as well , by the final decades of the nineteenth century the chief cause of urban growth was
the expansion of industry
The "new" immigrants from eastern and southern Europe
settled in ethnic neighborhoods in the urban centers
The urban ethnic neighborhoods of the late nineteenth century were
crowded and unhealthy
What city was a pioneer in regulating city house construction and sanitation?
New York
A residential apartment building , common in New York in the late 1800's, that was built on a tiny lot without consideration of proper lighting and ventilation was known as?
Urban transportation was revolutionized and urban development was redirected in the 1880's by
electric trolleys
The first electric trolley car line in America was installed by Frank J. Sprague in
Richmond, Virginia
As a result of the streetcar, American cities
expanded their geographical area enormously as the upper and middle classes fled city centers
Late nineteenth-century spectator sports were notable for their
mixture of upper- and working-class interests.
In 1891, James Naismith invented the game of
Walter Camp played a major role in establishing
football as major sport
How did Roman Catholic Church leaders respond to the problems of industrialism?
They tended to see vice as a personal matter and poverty as an act of God.
The lay evangelist of the late nineteenth century who conducted vigorous campaigns to convince the poor to abandon their sinful ways was
Dwight L. Moody
a church should focus on improving the spiritual lives of the poor by conducting massive religious revivals
god would provide for the faithful
the most influential preacher of the social gospel movement
washington gladden
characters asked themselves " what would jesus do?" in charles M sheldon best selling social gospel novel called
in his steps
the community centers started by idealistic young people to guide and help urban poor were
settlement houses
the first example of a settlement house in america was established in new york by
dr stanton coit
the founder of chicago's hull house was
jane adams
settlement houses were
funded by private beneficence but in need of state support
privately funded and most administrators did not want to deal with the regulations of state support
they continued to be optimistic and uncritical admirers of american civilization
the response of american intellectuals such as walt witman and henry adams to the new industrial civilization was to
denounce it as leading to the worship of money and material success
in the late nineteenth century , the way americans thought was transformed by
in 1870's most american colleges were
beging to establish graduate programs based on the model of german universities
in 1869, Harvard introduced the .... system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the gilded age
university president charles w eliot pioneered the
introduction of the elective system
johns Hopkins became the leader in graduate education under the presidency of
Daniel Ciot Gilam
the morill act land grant university system
provided land deeds to establish universities
vassar college holds the distinction of
being the first college for women
because the increase in both the number of college graduates and the influence of the alumni ,in the late nineteenth century american higher education
was increasingly focussed on social activities ,fraternities, and organized athletics with winning teams
under the influence of charles darwin ,the new social sciences turned much of thier energy to studying the
development of the institutions and their interactions with each other
members of the institutionalist school of economics such as richard t ely and jhon r commons thought that
economic problems should be totally divorced from moral concerns
the most influential social darwinist was the english thinker
Herbert Spencer
The American disciple of Herbert Spencer, Edward L. Youmans, believed that society was
changed only by the force of evolution, which moved with cosmic slowness.
According to German educator John Friedrich Herbart, good teaching called for
psychological insight and imagination
The educator John Dewey insisted that
education was the fundamental method of social progress.
"Education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform" This statement is typical of the beliefs of
John Dewey
The leader of what was called progressive education was
Johann F. Herbart
The emphasis of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. on evolutionary change had a profound impact upon twentieth-century
The late-nineteenth-century theory of the Teutonic origins of democracy
argued that the roots of democracy and the rule of law were found in the ancient tribes of northern Europe.
In his frontier thesis, Fredrick Jackson Turner argued that
the frontier gave Americans their unique character.
The importance of Frederick Jackson Turner's work was its
encouragement of the study of social and economic studies.
American literature immediately following the Civil War is best described as
unrealistic, sentimental pandering to the middle-class preconceptions.
The new literary style of the 1870's and 1880's which often examined social problems such as slum conditions and portrayed people of every social class was
The real name of the first great American realist, Mark Twain, was
Samuel L. Clemens
The author of novel such as Huckleberry Finn, whose acute reportorial eyes and ears caught the spirit of
Mark Twain
In novels like a Hazard of New Fortunes, William Dean Howells
portrayed the whole range of metropolitan life
The most influential literacy critic of the late nineteenth century was
William Dean Howells.
The late-nineteenth century naturalist writers, such as Stephen Crane, portrayed
humans as mere animals in a merciless Darwinian world.
One of the first books to treat sex forthrightly was
Sister Carrie
The author who spent most of his adult life in Europe writing about the clash between American and European values in a rarefied , overly subtle style was
Henry James
In his writing, Henry James was most interested in
the issues faced by artists in the modern world
In works like The Gross Clinic , American painter Thomas Eakins
captured the realism of the new scientific age
American painters of the late nineteenth century such as Winslow Homer and Thomas Eakins painted in
Although he had no formal training, Winslow Homer is considered a master because of his
brilliant watercolors
Probably the most famous painting by an American, Arrangement in Grey and Black, is the work of
James A. McNeill Whistler
The American expatriate artist deeply influenced French impressionism was
Mary Cassatt
Which of the following best describes Darwin's theory of evolution's impact on religious thought in America?
It did not undermine the faith of a large percentage of the population
The effects of Darwinism in America were apparent in the philosophy of ______________which stated that all truths are consistently evolving and can be judged only by their concrete results.
The most influential philosopher of his times and the main exponent of pragmatism was
William James
The pragmatic concept that the mind has a "vote" in determining truth was propounded by whom?
William James
Pragmatism encouraged
One of the problems with pragmatism that it
seemed to suggest that the end justified the means.
A form of education which illustrated the popular desire for new information in the late nineteenth century was the
Chautauqua movement
Industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated millions of dollars to help
build public libraries.
To what methods did publishers turn in the nineteenth century to appeal to the masses?
lowering cultural and intelectual standards and apealing emotions
The first newspaper editor to reach a truly massive audience without abandoning his basic integrity was
Joseph Pulitzer
Harper's, Century, and Atlantic Monthly were all magazines specializing in
serious, conservative articles.