36 terms

APES (18th Ed. Miller Spoolman) Chapter 5

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Interspecific Competition
Attempts by members of two or more different species to use the same limited resources in an ecosystem.
Intraspecific Competition
Attempts by two or more organisms of a single species to use the same limited resources in an ecosystem.
Predation
Interaction in which an organism of one species (the predator) captures and feeds on parts or all of an organism of another species (the prey).
Parasitism
Interaction between species in which one organism, called the parasite, preys on another organism, by living on or in the host.
Mutualism
Type of species interaction in which both participating species generally benefit.
Commensalism
An interaction between organisms of different species in which one type of organism benefits and the other type is neither helped nor harmed to any great degree.
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Two organisms cannot occupy the same ecological niche or else competition will occur.
Predator-Prey Relationship
Relationship that has evolved between two organisms, in which one organism has become the prey for the other, the latter called the predator.
Pursuit and Ambush
Predation style that includes attacking prey by chasing or sneaking up on their prey.
Camouflage
An animal's natural coloring or form that enables it to blend in with its surroundings.
Chemical Warfare
common strategy some species discourage predators with chemicals that are poisonous. EX. Skunks.
Mimicry
the close external resemblance of an animal or plant (or part of one) to another animal, plant, or inanimate object. EX. Viceroy and Monarchs.
Coevolution
Evolution in which two or more species interact and exert selective pressures on each other that can lead each species to undergo adaptations.
Resource Partitioning
Process of dividing resources in an ecosystem so that species with overlapping ecological niches use the same scarce resources in different times, ways, or places.
Population Dynamics
Major abiotic and biotic factors tend to increase or decrease the population size and affect the age and sex composition of a species
Population Distribution
Variation of a population over a geographic area or volume. If many live in the city, less live in the suburbs.
Population Change Formula
Births+Immigration-Deaths-Emigration
Emigration
Migration "Out"
Immigration
Migration "In"
Age Structure
Percentage (Or number) Of people within each sex at each level in a population. Shown in a population pyramid.
Intrinsic Rate of Increase
Rate at which a population could grow if it had unlimited resources.
Environmental Resistance
All of the limiting factors that act together to limit the growth of a population.
Carrying Capacity
Maximum population that the habitat can support at a given time. Populations will undershoot and overshoot because of lag
between births and deaths.
Logistic Growth
Population increases exponentially when small, slows down and declines when big.
r-Selected Species
Species that can reproduce early in their life span and produce large amounts of short living offspring in a short time.
K-Selected Species
Species that make few, large offspring and invest lots of time and energy ensuring that they reach reproductive age
Inbreeding
breed from closely related people or animals, especially over many generations.
Population Density
measurement of population per unit area or unit volume
Density-Dependent Population Control
the effect of the factor on the size of the population depends upon the original density or size of the population
Density-Independent Population Control
Impact does not depend on size of the population
Edge Habitat
edge effects refer to the changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two habitats.
Ecological Succession
observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. The time scale can be decades (for example, after a wildfire), or even millions of years after a mass extinction.
Primary Succession
Succession where there was no ecosystem to start with.
Secondary Succession
Succession where land that was previously destroyed, but still considered an ecosystem.
Pioneer Species
hardy species which are the first to colonize previously disrupted or damaged ecosystems, beginning a chain of ecological succession that ultimately leads to a more biodiverse steady-state ecosystem
Climax Community
An ecological community in which populations of plants or animals remain stable and exist in balance with each other and their environment. A climax community is the final stage of succession, remaining relatively unchanged until destroyed by an event such as fire or human interference.

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