Lifespan Final Exam

4) What is Erikson's developmental task of middle adulthood?
Acquire sense of generativity
7) In a study conducted by Snarey et al., what did they learn about the generativity of men with no children?
ex. have a pet instead of a child
8) Psychiatrist George Vaillant has identified a stage between intimacy and generativity. What is the name of this stage?
Career consolidation
Jane is a middle-aged woman who volunteers as a tour guide at the local art museum and at the Museum of Asian Culture. She does this because she believes that the arts are an important part of culture and must be preserved and passed on to future generations. What term would Vaillant apply to Georgina?
Keeper of the meaning
12) What best expresses Daniel Levinson's idea about development at mid-life?
Life event approach
Mrs. Jiminez has recently been promoted to administrator at the local nursing home, which means that she must be at work by 7:00 a.m. Mrs. Jones also believes that she should provide her children with breakfast and supervision before they get on the school bus at 7:30 each morning. What is Mrs. Jiminez experiencing?
Role conflict
When a person is confronted with a task which they are compelled to perform but for which they are ill prepared, what are they likely to experience?
Page Ref: 416
Life event approach
The person who is forced to take on responsibilities which are in constant competition with each other is experiencing what? Page Ref: 416
Role conflict
17) When a couple has learned which strategies work best when resolving disagreements and therefore have a sense that they have control of the relationship, they have accomplished what?
Increased sense of control
20) What does the term sandwich generation refer to?
Multigenerational caregivers, Middle adulthood adults who provide help to parents, adults, and children
21) What does the term "Peter Pandemonium" refer to?
"Boomerang kid"
22) What exemplifies a "boomerang kid?"
Young adults who don't want to grow up
The Smith family lives in a duplex. Grandma Smithlives in one half and Mr. and Mrs. Smith and their children live in the other half. Every day when the children get off of the school bus, grandma meets them and prepares their afternoon snack. She helps them with their homework until their parents get home from work. What kind of relationship does Grandma Smith have with her grandchildren?
Page Ref: 420
Multigenerational caregiver
28) When grandparents seldom see their grandchildren, your text calls it a
Remote relationships
Tom and Diane live hundreds of miles from their children. They are retired and have busy lives of leisure. They seldom visit their children and have never developed a close relationship with their grandchildren. Behavioral scientists would say Tom and Diane have what type of relationships with their grandchildren?
Remote relationships
31) What statements is true about companionate grandparents?
Frequent contact and warm interactions
Statement about the roles of grandparents is correct?
pg. 420
37) What is a recommended way to avoid conflict in the role of in-law?
1. Don't give advice
2. Be nonjudgmental
3. Dont criticize
4. Dont insist on being visited
5. Respect parents wishes for children
39) What best describes the nature of friendship in middle adulthood?
Total number of friendships lowered
43) Which of the Big Five traits are likely to decline as adults age?
Openness, Extraversion, Neuroticism
46) What is the term for the trait characterized by a need for order in the environment?
49) What is the term for the trait characterized by emotional negativity, pessimism, and irritability?
51) What is the best predictor of burnout in the work place?
Stress, people feel work is unappreciated
54) What is selective optimization with compensation?
They maintain high job productivity to performance is possible because of small but noticeable erosion of physical of cognitive ability
56) What is the term Baltes & Baltes gave to the idea that workers deliberately try to keep crucial abilities sharp by taking additional training or periodically "brushing up?"
1) The scientific study of aging is known as ______________.
Page Ref: 434
2) At what point in the human life cycle does the greatest number of deaths occur?
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Old old*?
7) What is the fastest-growing segment of the population in the United States today?
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Oldest Old (85 and over)
9) What is the single largest factor that determines the trajectory of an adult's physical or mental status beyond age 65?
Page Ref: 435
1) What does your text point out as a major factor in determining the overall well-being of older adults, even if they have a chronic disease?
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Optimistic view
13) Which term applies to intellectually demanding tasks such as managing finances and paying bills?
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Instrumental activities of daily living
15) Which term applies to older adults whose physical and/or mental impairments are so extensive that they cannot care for themselves?
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Frail ederly
16) Older individuals who have _______________________ are two to three times more likely to experience functional disability than elders who do not?
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hypertension, arthritis
17) Which chronic condition is more common in men over 65 than women over 65?
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Heart disease
19) What seems to be even more important in older age as a contributor to longevity and good health?
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Physical exercise and eating healthy
21) Which change that occurs in the brain during the adult years?
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1. Reduction of brain weight
2. A loss of gray matter
3. A decline in the density of dendrites
4. Slower synaptic speed
22) What has been linked to minimized atrophy of the cerebral cortex of the brain?
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Education level
23) What is the most likely cause of slower reaction time for everyday tasks and activities for an older individual?
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Synaptic plasticity
26) Discuss vision in late adulthood.
Page Ref: 440
27) Mr. Cain has great difficulty seeing now because the lenses inside his eyes have become clouded over. What is the name of this condition?
Page Ref: 440
28) Macular degeneration is most likely to occur in __________.
Page Ref: 440
Older adults
30) Grandpa Ezra complains that he frequently hears ringing or buzzing sounds in his ears. What is Louis experiencing?
Page Ref: 440
31) Auditory problems typically are experienced
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by men then by women
36) Which sensation results from decreased production of saliva?
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"Wooly mouth"
39) The genetically programmed time limit for cell replication to which each species is theoretically bound is called
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Hayflick limit
41) What is the name of the theory which says that aging is a result of species-specific genes?
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Programmed senescence theory
43) What effect do free radicals have on the body?
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Enter into many potentially harmful chemical reactions, resulting in irreparable cellular damage that accumulates with age
56) What is likely to affect sexual activity in older age?
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Decline in testosterone in males,
58) What are the group of neurological disorders that involve memory and thinking -- affecting social, emotional and physical functioning?
Page Ref: 445
62) What is definitively diagnostic of Alzheimer's disease?
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Loss of appetite
2) How did Erikson characterize the developmental task of late adulthood?
Page Ref: 460
Ego integrity
5) What best describes ego integrity?
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the feeling that one's life has been worthwhile
7) As older adults reminisce about their life, _____________________ describes the judgments they make about their past behavior?
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life review
8) What, according to activity theory, could older adults do to have the most psychologically and physically healthy response to old age?
Page Ref: 461
maintain greatest possible activity and maintain greatest number of roles possible
9) According to research, what is the most common effect of activity upon later life?
Page Ref: 461
Slightly grater life satisfaction
13) Gender roles tend to be least rigid in old age. This is reflective of ________________ aspects of disengagement theory?
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Increased individuality
14) According to disengagement theory, what is the tendency of people to interact with fewer and fewer people and fill fewer and fewer roles?
Page Ref: 461
Shrinkage of life space
16) Miss Jennifer is 92. She has become increasing solitary, preferring her "quiet time" to the company of others. She no longer gets out much, and although she does not really seem depressed, her level of involvement with the world has diminished to almost nothing. Miss Jennifer's lifestyle is consistent with the aspect of disengagement theory known as Page Ref: 461
Acceptance of these changes
19) What is the term used by gerontologists to describe maintaining one's physical health, mental abilities, social competence and general satisfaction with life?
Page Ref: 462
successful aging
20) According to research in the United States and Japan, which factor might help individuals to recover from a health crisis such as a stroke or a fracture?
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Willingness to rehabilitation
21) Describes the component of successful aging that involves a willingness to learn new things.
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cognitive adventurousness
24) What is one of the components of successful aging outlined in your text?
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optimism level, willingness to rehabilitation, social support, involvement in cognitive and physical activities
27) ________________ is the tendency to turn to religious beliefs and institutions for support in times of difficulty?
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religious coping
30) What is the best definition of spirituality?
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tendency to focus on aspects of life that transcend's one physicals existence, than on any particular set of deity's doctrines or teachings
33) What is unlikely to be an important factor to consider when an aging adult must decide whether or not to live with an adult child?
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...? income, adult child's characteristics, ethnicity ARE IMPORTANT
35) Mrs. Jones is a 74-year-old healthy widow who has a good retirement pension. She most likely lives _________
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independent living community
38) Cindy is pretty spry and she likes her independence, which is considerable for a 94-year-old. Still, she is not able to cook for herself anymore and has some difficulty with certain activities of daily living. Miss Cindy might be a good candidate for living in __________________________________________.
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Assisted living home
40) What describes a common belief in Asian cultures which holds that children have the responsibility to care for their aging parents?
Page Ref: 468
Filial peity
41) What is another name for a nursing home?
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Assisted living home
47) What are risk factors associated with elder abuse?
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financial dependency, social isolation, external stressors, alcoholism
54) Compared to the relationship between an older adult and her adult children, the relationship between an older adult and her friends is more likely to ___________________________
Page Ref: 472
reciprocal, more valued less stressful
55) Why are sibling relationships likely to become more important in late adulthood?
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provide emotional support, "insurance policy"
69) Research suggests that those who respond most poorly to retirement are those who
Page Ref: 477
did not have a choice
70) Lane and Woodrow moved to a retirement community on a lake because they like to fish and ski. According to Longino, their move could be considered to be _______________________________________________
Page Ref: 477
amenity move
75) How are older adults typically evaluated by management in the work place?
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higher ratings, considered more reliable
1) Which form of death occurs at the point at which family members and medical personnel treat the deceased person as a corpse?
Page Ref: 484
Social Death
2) Which form of death has occurred in circumstances where rescue is still possible even though there is no evidence of brain function, the heart has stopped, and breathing has stopped?
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Clinical Death
3) Which form of death has occurred in circumstances where there is no electrical activity in the brain and the person no longer has reflexes or responds to vigorous external stimuli?
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Brain Death
5) What circumstances permit the determination that a person is legally dead? Page Ref: 484
When the cortex AND brain stem are dead, no body functioning can occur independently
6) What is an approach to caring for the terminally ill that focuses on individual and family control over the process of dying?
Page Ref: 484
Hospice Care
10) In the United States and other industrialized countries, where do most adults die?
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Hospital or Medical Center
12) Which type of care focuses on relieving a terminally ill patient's pain, rather than curing the illness?
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Palliative Care
13) In which type of hospice programs are family caregivers supported by specially trained health care workers?
Page Ref: 485
Home-Based Programs
14) Where would you find a small number of patients who are cared for by specially trained health care workers in a home- like setting?
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Hospice Centers
15) According to research, which attitude was commonly reported by the loved ones of a terminally ill patient who chose a home-based hospice program?
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More consistently satisfied than those who were in the hospital
17) What most accurately characterizes what a child younger than five years of age would understand or believe about death?
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They believe death can be reversed
18) A child's understanding of the permanence of death correlates with which stage of Piaget's theory?
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Concrete operational stage
20) What contributes to adolescent suicidal behavior?
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Unrealistic beliefs about personal death
21) Which term explains a young adult's belief that she is too lucky to die, even though she knows that death can happen to other people?
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Unique invulnerability
31) According to research, who would be least afraid to die?
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Late adulthood
33) With regard to death, older adults are most likely to fear which of the following?
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The period of uncertainty before death
35) Jann is in the early stages of an inoperable cancer. She has prepared a signed and witnessed written document directing her family not to allow any artificial or heroic steps to be taken in the event that she is unable to make her wishes known at the appropriate time. What is this document called?
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advance directive
46) What is thanatology? Page Ref: 496
The scientific study of death and dying
48) When an individual rejects evidence about a diagnosis and/or insists that surgery was just precautionary, Greer and others suggest this is _____________________________________. Page Ref: 496
Denial (Positive avoidance)
49) Laura has breast cancer. She has kept a positive attitude and has been doing research to learn more about her type of cancer. She readily tells her doctors that she is going to fight with everything she has to beat her cancer. Greer and other researchers would suggest that Grace has _________________________________________.
Page Ref: 496
Fighting Sprit
51) According to the research conducted by Greer, what groups had the longest survival rates from a terminal illness?
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Denial, Fighting Spirit
56) While Bowlby suggests that the first stage of grief is numbness, Sanders suggests that it is _____________________.
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66) Following the loss of his life partner, James has decided to move to Florida and pursue a graduate degree. According to the dual-process model in which emotional state is James? Page Ref: 501
71) It is believed that widowhood has both immediate and long-term effects on ____________________________.
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Immune System
72) What is a condition that can occur if a grieving individual experiences depression-like symptoms, such as loss of appetite, for more than two months following the loss of a loved one?
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Pathological Grief