58 terms

NTX Test 1

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Terms in this set (...)

What are the three categories of knowledge?
1. propositional knowledge
2. acquaintance/experiential knowledge
3. ability knowledge
What is the definition of knowledge?
justified true belief
What are the standard sources of knowledge? Non-standard?
Standard:
perception (experience)
testimony (instruction)
memory
introspection
reason
rational insight

Non-standard:
intuition
mystical experience
faith
What role do reasons and evidence play in what we know?
Reasons confer probability on propositions. Quality of and amount of evidence influence the validity of the evidence.
What three things did Bertrand Russell say about experts?
1. When the experts are agreed, the opposite opinion cannot be held certain
2. When they are not agreed, no opinion can be regarded as certain by a non-expert
3. bias can affect credibility
What is the difference between hermeneutics and exegesis?
Hermeneutics is the science of interpretation and includes philosophical speculation on the field of interpretation. Exegesis refers to the interpretation, explanation, and commentary of a specific text; to exegete a text is to provide a coherent explanation of its meaning
Reproduce and explain the communication diagram
The addresser speaks to the addressee(s) from a perspective that the addressee(s) can understand.

context
addresser(encodes)-message-addressee(decodes
(culture) medium (culture)
(knowledge) (knowledge)
(experience) (experience)
(attitudes) (attitudes)
What is the task of interpretation (Better Approach)?
to understand the possible meaning(s) that a given text might have had for the original audience of the author
What aspects hinder us from being objective readers?
-we often see what we look for
-we come to the text with a world view, our own history and culture, and a religious background
What is the Restoration method to interpreting Scripture? What presuppositions are behind it? Why is this deficient?
Restoration method to interpreting Scripture: command, example, necessary inference

Presuppositions:
Holy Spirit dictates
authors had complete understanding
all authors are eyewitnesses
chronological accuracy
no contradictions
Bible speaks directly to me
Bible is God's rulebook

This is deficient because our theology infuses term with meaning
What is Pattern theology?
-it assumes a God of particular tastes
-obedience to the pattern represents faithfulness to God
-current practice often determines doctrine
What 4 barriers does the NT present?
language gap
time gap
culture gap
third party perspective
What is the task of textual criticism? Why is it necessary?
Textual criticism seeks to determine the original wording of the text. This is important because if you have the original wording, interpretation will be more accurate.
What are the two primary materials used for ancient writings?
papyrus, parchment
What were the methods used to transmit/copy early NT documents?
copying done by individual Christians
mass production of copies by the Scriptoria
copies done by monks
What are some of the most important NT manuscripts for reconstructing the original text?
1. Sinaiticus
2. Vaticanus-B
3. Codex Bezae-D
What other types of evidence are used in reconstructing the original text?
1. ancient versions that have been translated from Greek into other languages
2. patristic quotations (verbatim or paraphrase)
What are the various causes of error in transmission, both unintentional and intentional?
Unintentional:
1. faulty eyesight: mistaken letters
2. faulty eyesight: parablepsis (skipping a line)
3. dittography: repeating a line
4. faulty hearing: itacism (same pronunciation different spelling)
5. errors of the mind: substitution of synonyms, variation in sequence of words, transposition of letters, assimilation to more familiar passage
6. errors of judgement: incorporate notes in margin

Intentional:
1. spelling and grammar corrections
2. harmonistic corruptions: make parallel stories agree
3. addition of natural complements
4. clearing up historical and geographical problems
5. conflation: combine variant readings
6. aligning text with doctrine
7. miscellaneous details
What are text families? Which is the most reliable text family?
Text families are groups of texts that have been copied from a specific manuscript(s). The most important family is Alexandrian texts
What are the three main schools of textual criticism? How do they differ?
majority text: count manuscripts
radical eclecticism: emphasis on internal evidence
modified eclecticism: balance of internal and external evidence
What is the primary criterion for evaluating textual variants?
Choose the reading which best explains the origin of the others
How is external evidence used in evaluating a textual variant? What three things do you want to know about a variant reading related to the external evidence?
It is used to reconstruct the history of a variant reading. Three things you want to know: date, geographical location, and genealogical relationship
What are the various kinds of internal evidence?
transcriptional probabilities
intrinsic probabilities
Know at least two types of transcriptional probabilities and two types of intrinsic probabilities
transcriptional probabilities: more difficult reading, shorter reading

intrinsic probabilities: style and vocabulary, immediate context
What are some important textual variants that occur in the New Testament?
Acts 6:8
Romans 8:28
Mark 16:9-20
John 7:53-8:11
1 John 5:7
Uncials
capital letters used in 1st thru 8th centuries
Minuscules
smaller letters that took over in the 9th century
Scriptio continua
no spaces between words
nomina sacra
abbreviation of frequently occuring divine names or titles
parablepsis
skipping a line
dittography
repeating a line
itacism
same pronunciation, different spelling
transcriptional probabilities
more difficult reading, shorter reading, verbal dissidence in parallel passages
intrinsic probabilities
Style and vocabulary, immediate context, harmony with usage of author elsewhere
What is the difference between the "history of the text" and the "history in the text"?
History of the text is how the text came to be, while history in the text is the events, places, things, or people that the text is describing
What are some of the key elements related to the "history of the text"? What is the process for discovering these?
Key elements: author, audience, date, circumstances (narrative, letter (occasion of letter)), layers (earlier sources incorporated into final work)

Process for discovering these: read entire document, look for clues to answer questions, look for statements of purpose in intro, list general themes, consult NT introduction and critical commentary
What are the types of information related to "history in the text"? Be able to give some specific examples, i.e. biblical passages, that demonstrate how this information helps us interpret texts.
1. research unkown people, places, practices, and ideas
2. the worldview of the author, audience, and characters
3. social structures: marriage and family, role of men and women, slavery
4. physical features: climate, geography, distance
5. economic structures: poverty vs. wealth, taxation, jobs
6. political structures: rulers- governors, client kings, emperor; local vs. empire
7. customs and behavior
8. religious beliefs and practices: functionaries, rituals, sacred spaces

Examples: 1 Cor. 14:33-36-- When looking at the issue of women's roles in the church, it is good to research social structures in Corinthian society. How were women viewed in the 50s A.D.?

1 Corinthians 6:12-20-- Why is Paul having to respond to issues of Christians having prostitutes? Wait a minute- what were the views of prostitution in the society of that day?
What are some important guidelines to keep in mind when examining historical and cultural background?
1. Which culture?
2. Which time period? Make sure info is relevant for a particular place and time
3. short term strategy: dictionaries, etc.
4. long term strategy: primary literature, historical summaries
What primary sources of information do we have to learn about the ancient world?
archaeology
literary texts
mundane documents
numismatics
inscriptions
What is parallelomania?
Using Greco-Roman culture to explain biblical material when no real parallel exists
What are some important types of secondary resources we can use to help us with the historical context?
journal articles, dictionaries, commentaries, etc.
What are the different levels of context?
1. verses before and after your passage
2. entire chapter
3. Biblical book
4. author's corpus
5. testament
6. Bible
What is the "proof text" approach? Know some examples.
Proof-text is when you take a verse out of context to support your opinion.

1 Cor. 14:34 - Women should remain silent in the churches...but what about 1 Cor. 11:5 - women praying and prophesying

Ephesians 5:19 - speaking to one another with psalms, hymns, and songs from the Spirit. Sing and make music from your heart to the Lord
Why are thought chunks important?
It is good to really think about the context in which a verse is put and to analyze it critically.
What does outlining a biblical book help you see?
it can help you see connections and larger contexts
What is a discourse analysis? What does it seek to achieve?
A discourse analysis is asking these questions: How does each unit contribute to flow of argument? What is the function of individual pericope? Think interlocking pieces and look for logical connections

It seeks to achieve better understanding of the letter
What are some examples of "logical connections"?
1. intro: preparing for what follows
2. explanation: clarifying the meaning
3. illustration: citing an example
4. causation: showing cause and effect
5. repetition: restating an idea

Examples:
Galatians 1 - Paul's personal history
Ephesians 4:1 - Live worthy of the calling
Romans 1:26-27 - Distortion of true nature
What role does the Bible as a whole play in serving as a context for an individual passage?
New Testament use of Old Testament:
Repurposing of OT texts
Prophesies had immediate reference for their time
Reapplied to new circumstances
What is the most important context?
immediate context
Who is Adolf Deissmann? What contribution did he make to the study of NT letters?
He studied papyri from Egypt and distinguished between letters and epistles
How do Paul's letter compare to other ancient letters?
Paul's writings are in between letters and epistles. They are longer than letters, but more conventional than epistles
Why did Paul write letters?
He only wrote when there was an issue that needed to be taken care of. His letters are occasional letters
What is the difference between a systematic theological treatise and an occasional letter?
Systematic theological treatise: seeks to be universal, well thought out, propositional in nature, comprehensive

Occasional letter: addresses a specific group, reactionary, sometimes overstated or argumentative, addresses specific situation
The standard form for ancient letter consisted of what elements?
Prescript- x to y, greetings
Health wish
Prayer
Closing Greeting- farewell or best wishes
Illiteracy formula- x writes on behalf of y
What part of a Pauline letter provides us clues concerning what is to come?
prayer of thanksgiving
How do you go about determining the purpose/occasion of a letter?
1. read entire letter: note key topics
2. notice key words: urge, beseech, beg
3. imperatives
4. explicit information about purpose
5. quotations from church members
What is an amanuensis?
a trained secretary
What is Performance criticism?
it examines the text from the perspective of oral performance. How does someone speaking it differ from someone reading it?