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According to Piaget, newborn babies cannot create internal representations, such as mental images and as a result they lac

object permanence

in the contact of Piaget theory to say that a child is egocentric means that he or she is

unable to assume the viewpoint of others

Baby Jay accidentally sucked his thumb now he seems to love to suck his thumb and has leaned to do it over and over again. This best exemplifies the concept of a

Primary circular reaction

Piaget believed that cognition develops through a process of

assimilation and accommodation

according to vygotsy, the range of tasks a child cannot yet master alone but that she or he can accomplish with the guidance of a more capable partner is known as the zone of

proximal develpment

This form of memory lasts only 1 to 2 seconds in most situations

sensory learning

an individual whose behavior demonstrates the effects of past experience but who is not consciously aware that they are doing so is demonstrating which type of memory


semantic memories are best described as memories for

general facts

if you turn on a floor fan, an infant will immediately orient its head toward the sound. after a while the infant appears to have lost interest what is this an example of


Rovee Collier and colleagues technique for studying infant memory in which a ribbon tied to an infants foot is attached to a mobile above their crib relies heavily on ____ conditioning techniques.


SAM and sue are shopping for groceries. SAM looks at the list and tells sue "car food, soap, toilet paper, flour" this best illustrates the use of which memory state


which of the following sequences best describes the order in which memory strategies are acquired from early childhood to adolescence

rehearsal, organization, elaboration

The main distinction between short term memory and woring memory is that working memory

is sensory based

jack knows that he can more easily memorize and recall a lists of ten familiar words than he can ten unfamiliar words. this knowledge provides an excellent example of

meta memory

Suppose that you are on a jury in which a five year old child has provided eyewitness testimony about an automobile accident. Based on what you know about memory development in young children you should keep in mind that

young children are more suggestible than adults are

as a typical eighty year old Ernie would have a greater than expected number of autobiographical memories for events from his

teens and twenties

which of the following tasks typically shows the smallest declines with age in healthy older adults

vocabulary knowledge

according to the psychometric approach to intelligence, intelligence

is made up of traits that vary and can be measured

spearmans intelligence concept of "g" was based on the observation that

performance is correlated across many tasks

crystallized intelligence is form of intelligence that includes all of the following abilities except

recognizing relationships between two objects you have bever seen before

the intelligence test developed by binet and simon was specifically designed to

determine which school children needed to be put in special classes

Based on the way in which IQ was originally calculated, an average ten year old would have

both chronological and mental age of ten

the wechsler adult intelligence scale test differs from the stanford binet test because only the WAIS IV

has separate scores for verbal and performance abilities

to say that test scores are normally distributed around the average score means that

most people score in the average range and fw people score very high or very low

the fact that adults born in the 1980s have higher adult IQ's than adults born in the 1950s illustrates


Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences

lins distinct types of intelligence to specific areas of the brain

an intelligence test in which the difficulty of questions is gradually increased such that the first items are ones a person can answer easily and the final questions are ones they cannot answer at all is using the ______ method of testing


research on changes in intellectual abilities during adulthood indicates that

fluid intelligence declines earlier and more quickly than crystallized intelligence

creativity tests such as "how many uses can you think of for a coffee mug" differ from tests of intelligence in requiring what kind of thinking


at which age do intelligence tests start doing a reasonable good job of predicting IQ in adulthood


The use of a test yielding a developmental quotient over a test yielding an iq is most appropriate when you are assessing


who would be most likely to argue that the vast majority of personality is formed between birth and age six

Fred. who is a psycho-dynamic theorist

albright is a self described "big five" advocate when it comes to personality. Given his self description albright would be best described as a _____ theorist


Vicki was reserved as a baby shy as a child an shy as an adult. social cognitive theorists would say that Vicki

is a product of environments that consistently fostered the same personality trait

Research by Kagan and his colleagues concluded that behavioral inhibition is _____ rooted.


which of the following big five personality traits seems to change least over the lifespan in terms of overall amount of the trait possessed demonstrated by individuals in different age groups


which statement is most correct concerning personality change throughout adulthood

personality traits tend to remain stable when compared to toher adutls of the same age

a biologically based tendency to respond to stimuli in particular ways best describes what is known as


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