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During vomiting, there is:

Deep inspiration, airway closure, forceful diaphragm and abdominal muscle contractions, and esophageal sphincter relaxation

a. manifests as regurgitation of chyme
b. has denervation of smooth muscle in the esophagus
c. occurs in response to sedentary lifestyle
d. results in esophageal sphincter relaxation

has denervation of smooth muscle in the esophagus

Osmotic diarrhea is caused by:
a. nonabsorbable intestinal contents
b. bacterial enterotoxins
c. ulcerative colitis
d. Croh disease

nonabsorbable intestinal contents

Melena is:

Black, tarry stools

A common manifestation of hiatal hernia is:
a. gastroesophageal reflux
b. diarrhea
c. belching
d. vomitus w/out bile

gastroesophageal reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux is:
a. caused by rapid gastric emptying
b. excessive lower esophageal sphincter functioning
c. associated w/ abd. surgery
d. caused by lower esophageal sphincter incompetence

caused by lower esophageal sphincter incompetence

Intestinal obstruction causes:
a. decreased intraluminal tension
b. hyperkalemia
c. decreased nutrient absorption
d. epigastric fullness

decreased nutrient absorption

Peptic ulcers may be caused by:
b. H. pylori
c. habitual alcohol consumption
d. mucus secretion
e. all of the above

all of the above

Gastric ulcers:
a. may lead to malignancy
b. occur at a younger age than duodenal ulcers
c. always have increased acid production
d. exhibit nocturnal pain
e. both a and c

may lead to malignancy

Duodenal ulcers:
a. occur four times more frequently in females than males
b. may be complicated by hemorrhage
c. are associated with sepsis
d. may cause inflammation and scar tissue formation around the sphincter of Oddi

may be complicated by hemorrhage

In malabsorption syndrome, flatulence and abdominal distention are likely caused by:
a. protein deficiency and electrolyte imbalance
b. undigested lactose fermentation by bacteria
c. fat irritating the bowel
d. impaired absorption of amino acids and accompanying edema

undigested lactose fermentation by bacteria

The characteristic lesion of Crohn disease is:
a. found in the colon
b. precancerous
c. granulomatous
d. malignant


Which gene is most often associated with digestive system cancers?
a. K-ras
b. p53
c. p16
d. APC


A 14 yr old boy has been admitted to the ED w/ acute-onset abd. pain in the RLQ. Abdominal rebound tenderness is intense, and he has a fever and leukocytosis. This individual most likely has:
a. acute appendicitis
b. diverticulitis
c. ulcerative colitis
d. cholelithiasis
e. cholecystitis

acute appendicitis

The control of appetite and body is influenced by many different hormones. Leptin:
a. decreases the appetite
b. stimulates NPY/AGRP neurons
c. stimulates appetite
d. sets the hypothalamus thermostat

decreases the appetite

Short-term starvation involves:
a. glycogenolysis
b. gluconeogenesis
c. proteolysis
d. both a and b
e. all are correct

a and b are correct

The most common manifestation of portal hypertension is:

vomiting of blood from esophageal bleeding

Hepatic encephalopathy is manifested by:
a. ascites
b. splenomegaly
c. dark urine
d. oliguria
e. cerebral dysfunction

cerebral dysfunction

Acute occlusion of mesenteric artery blood results from:
a. dissecting aortic aneurysms
b. chronic segmental ischemia
c. arteriosclerosis
d. necrosis of intestinal tissue

Dissecting aortic aneurysm

Which type of jaundice is due to genetic enzyme defects?
a. obstructive
b. hemolytic
c. hepatocellular
d. both a and c


Which most often causes postnecrotic cirrhosis?
a. malnutrition
b. alcoholism
c. hepatitis C
d. autoimmunity
e. biliary obstruction

Hep. C

a. manifests as pain in the RLQ
b. is asymptomatic
c. commonly involves the transverse colon
d. is inflammation of diverticular outpouchings of mucosa through muscle layers of the colon

is inflammation of diverticular outpouchings of mucosa through muscle layers of the colon

In pancreatitis:
a. tissue damage likley results from release of pancreatic enzymes
b. cholesterol intake is causative
c. diabetes is uncommon in chronic pancreatitis
d. the cause is bacterial infection

tissue damage likley results from release of pancreatic enzymes

A complication of ulcerative colitis not seen w/ Crohn disease is:
a. gangrene and rupture
b. obstruction
c. intestinal malabsorption
d. increased risk for adenocarcinoma of the colon

Increased risk for adenocarcinoma of the colon

Excessive ingestion of NSAIDs and aspirin can cause:
a. acute gastritis
b. esophagitis
c. stress ulcers
d. gastric atrophy

Acute gastritis

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