Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
EDF3110 Chapter Two
Terms in this set (93)
Store and transmit genetic information
Substance of which genes and chromosomes are made
A segment of DNA located along the chromosomes
Process of cell devision that creates gametes
When the sperm and ovum unite, the zygote will have how many chromosomes?
22 matching pairs of chromosomes
23rd pair of chromosomes
Sex cells: Sperm and ovum
Formed when sperm and ovum unite
Two zygotes, or fertilized ova
One zygote that divides into two individuals
Two forms of the same gene, one inherited from each parent
Both alleles are alike
Where do alleles occur?
At the same place on both chromosomes in a pair
Which allele affects the child's characteristics?
The dominant allele
Can the recessive allele be passed to children?
What can result from recessive alleles?
Serious disabilities and diseases
Both alleles are expressed in the phenotype which results in a combined trait, or an intermediate between the two
A harmful allele is carried on the X chromosome
What is an example of incomplete dominance?
Sickle cell anemia
Which genre is more likely to be affected by the x-linked inheritance and why?
Males because the y chromosome lacks corresponding genes to override those on the x
What is an example of the x-linked inheritance?
Chemical marker activates one allele in a pair; often temporary and may not pass to next generation
Sudden, permanent change in a DNA segment. Can occur spontaneously or be caused by hazardous environmental agents
What are the two types of mutations?
Germnline and somatic
Mutation that takes place in the cells that give rise to the gametes
Mutation in which normal body cells mutate and can occur at any time of life
Many genes affect the characteristic in question
Results when 21st chromosome pair fails to separate during meiosis
What are the sex chromosome abnormalities?
Caused by problems with the X or Y chromosome
Not recognized until adolescence
What are the options for reproductive choices?
- Genetic counseling
- Reproductive technologies
- Prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine
Helps couples assess risk of hereditary disorders and choose best course of action
Individuals likely to seek genetic counseling are:
- Couples that have had difficulties bearing children
- Know genetic problems exist
- Women over 35
What are examples of reproductive technologies?
- Donor insemination
- In vitro fertilization
- Surrogate motherhood
Injection of sperm from an anonymous man into a woman
Women is given hormones that stimulate the ripening of several ova
In vitro fertilization
In vitro fertilization may be used to impregnante a woman
What are ethical concerns regarding reproductive technologies?
- Postmenopausal childbearing
- Selection of desired characteristics; "designer babies"
- Exploitation of financially needy women
What are prenatal diagnostic methods?
- Chorionic villus sampling
- Maternal blood analysis
- Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Most widely used; hollow needle is inserted through the abdominal wall to obtain a sample of fluid in the uterus
A thin tube is inserted into the uterus through the vagina, or a hollow needle is inserted through the abdominal wall to remove a small plug of tissue
Chorionic villus sampling
Small tube with a light source at one end is inserted into the uterus to inspect the fetus for defects of the limbs and face
High-frequency sound waves are beamed at the uterus
Some of the developing organism's cells enter the maternal bloodstream
Maternal blood analysis
Sometimes used as a supplement to ultrasound, where brain or other abnormalities are detected and can provide greater diagnostic accuracy
After in vitro fertiliziation and duplication of the zygote into a cluster of about 8 to 10 cells, 1 or 2 cells are removed and examined for hereditary defects
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
What are options for fetal medicine?
- Drug administration to fetus
- Blood transfusions
- Bone marrow transplants
What are the risks of fetal medicine?
- Most commonly premature labor or miscarriage
Purpose is to correct hereditary defects
What is an example of genetic engineering?
Human genome project
What are possible causes people may look towards adoption?
- Genetic predispositions
- Stress of biological mother
- History of conflict-ridden family relationships
- Adoptive parents and children less alike
What are environmental contexts for development?
- Socioeconomic status
- Cultural context
What are the family influences on development?
- Adapting to changes within and outside family
Two-person relationships and example?
Direct; parent, sibling, marital spouse
Indirect; healthy marriage fosters effective coparenting
Example of adapting to changes within and outside family
Birth of baby
What are the variables regarding SES?
- Years of education
- Prestige of one's job and skill it requires
What do years of education and prestige measure?
What does income measure?
SES is linked to:
- Timing of marriage and parenthood
- Family size
- Child-rearing values and expectations
- Communication and discipline styles
- Parents' education and economic security
- Children's cognitive and social development
Rates of poverty are higher for children of parents under what?
- Under age 25
- Ethnic minorities
- Single mothers
What are the risks of poverty?
- Lifelong poor physical health
- Poor cognitive development and academic achievement
- Mental illness
- Impulsivity, aggression, and antisocial behavior
- Hostile family interactions
What are the risks of affluence?
- Poor academic achievement
- Alcohol and drug use
- Anxiety and depression
- Unavailable parents
What are the result of having unavailable parents?
- Lack emotional closeness and supervision
- Make excessive demands for achievement
Offer resources and social ties that promote development; greater impact on economically disadvantaged
In-school and after-school programs for low-income children show improved:
- Academic achievement
- Social adjustment
- Family functioning and child-rearing
Complex social systems that affect many aspects of development. Achieving well leads to success in college
What are known facts about schools?
- Interventions to upgrade best begun early
- Parental involvement aids academic achievement
- Children in low-SES neighborhoods likely to experience poorer quality education
U.S. culture emphasizes what?
- Family privacy
What are the benefits of Africa-American extended family?
- Reduces stress of poverty and single parenthood
- Family members help with child rearing
- Adolescent mothers more likely to complete high school and get a job
- Improves children's school performance and social skills
- Strengthens family bonds
- Transmits culture and heritage
Stress group goals over individual ones
- value interdependent qualities
Concern with own personal needs
- Value independence: personal achievement, exploration, and choice in relationships
What are the public policy shortcomings for children and youth?
- Lack of affordable health insurance and quality child care
- Weak enforcement of child support payments
- High school dropout rates
What are the public policy shortcomings for older adults?
- Limited funding for social services
- Social security minimum is below poverty line
What helps improve policy?
- Advocacy groups and research
Explores nature and nurture contributions to traits and abilities; looks at complex, polygenic traits
Measure extent to which individual differences in complex traits are due to heredity
How are heritability estimates obtained?
- Obtained from kingship studies
- Estimates range from 0 to 1.00
What does 0.5 suggest?
Suggests heredity explains half the trait's ariation
What are limitations of heritability estimates?
Whether represent the population; can be misapplied; limited usefulness
Individuals respond differently to same environment because of genetic makeup
What is an example of similar responses from gene-environment combinations?
Children with different environmental enrichment produce same intelligence test scores
Genes influence the environments to which we are exposed how?
- Passive correlation
- Evocative correlation
- Active correlation: Niche-picking
Child has no control of over gene-environment
Children evoke responses that are influenced by the child's heredity, and these responses strengthen the child's original style
Children actively seek environment that fit with their genetic tendencies
Development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges
Exchanges from epigenesis requires:
- Genes affect behavior and experiences
- Behavior and experiences affect gene expression
Studies how environment alters gene expression
What is an example of epigenetic?
Recommended textbook explanations
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 2: Genetic and Environmental Fou…
Chapter 2: Biological and Environmental Influences
CHD Chapter 2
Other sets by this creator
micro test 3
EDF3110 Chapter Three
EDF3110 Chapter Six
EDF3110 Chapter One
Other Quizlet sets
Ch 23 General Surgery
CTE4443 Chapter 10
Independent Study (10)