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50 terms

Sociology Exam 2

STUDY
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In general, an important foundation of humor is
incongruity--differences in meaning
Charles Horton Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as
a primary group
Which concept is used to designate the process by which people creatively shape reality as they interact?
social construction of reality
The importance of Alfred Kinsey's research on sexuality in the United States was
making sexuality a focus of scientific study, showing that people were less conventional than most of society thought, and encouraging a greater openness toward sexuality
The sexual counterrevolution had begun in the United States by
1980
What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity?
group think
Max Weber argued that formal organizations were efficient , but he cautioned that they can have harmful effects on people. As he saw it, what is the danger?
organizations create alienation
Which type of leadership style takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told?
authoritarian leadership
Most women take the family name of a man they marry. In sociological terms, this is an example of how language can be used to convey
power over others
The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves in order to keep going is called bureaucratic
inertia
Which type of social group commands a member's esteem and loyalty?
an in-group
Which of the following concepts refers to stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"?
heterosexism
The Thomas theorem states that
situations defined as real are real in their consequences
Which theoretical approach rests on the idea that society needs to regulate human sexuality?
the structural-functional approach
Which theoretical approach points to the ways which sexuality is linked to social inequality?
the social-conflict approach
Which of the following concepts defines a social position that a person holds?
status
Sociologist use what concept to refer to behavior that people expect from someone who holds a particular status?
role
Based on what you know about the history of human sexuality, once society gains birth control technology
social norms regarding sexuality become more permissive
Which statements correctly reflects Simmel's interpretation of the dyad?
dyads are less stable than groups with many members
If you often had the feeling of being "trapped in the wrong body", you might be
a transsexual
In general, we see ----- as a means to an end; we see ----- as an end in itself.
a secondary group; a primary group
Max Weber noted many traits of bureaucracy. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
favoring family members over strangers
According to Erving Goffman, people usually make efforts to ----- their intentions.
idealize
Think about the process of McDonaldization. Looking at the list below, which one of the traits is NOT linked to McDonaldization?
creativity
Which of the following likely plays a part of the reality we construct through social interactions?
social class background, the country we live in, and our ethnicity
Shawna is an excellent artist, but as a mother she feels that she cannot work and devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing
role conflict
Which concept refers to a status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life?
master status
What does the term "presentation of self" mean?
efforts to create impressions in the minds of others
A secondary group is a social group that
is impersonal and engages in some specific activity
In terms of dramaturgical analysis, another term for helping a person to "save face" or avoid embarrassment is
tact
Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator" showed
people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
What concept refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntary assumed later in life?
ascribed status
Which concept refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?
expressive leadership
Sarah feels little or no sexual attraction to people of either sex. Her sexual orientation is called
asexuality
Which types of formal organization is sometimes called a "voluntary association"?
normative organizations
Soloman Asch's research, in which subjects were asked to match lines, showed that
group membership has the power to generate conformity
When did the sexual revolution begin?
It began in the 1940s and then grew quickly in the late 1960s
If you were teaching a class about the symbolic-interaction approach to sexuality, on which of the following topics would you likely focus?
how individuals in various settings engage in different sexual behavior and attach different meanings to sexual activity
The text suggests that the MOST widely divisive issue regarding sexuality in the United States in recent years has been
abortion
During the last fifty years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United States by being
more collective in their orientation
Which one of the following statements about rape is NOT true?
in most cases of rape, the victim does not know the attacker
Research suggest that
women "read" men better than men "read" women
The majority of evidence indicates that sexual orientation is rooted in
human biology, although social experience plays some role
The success story of the McDonald's organization explains
that the organizational principles of McDonald's have come to dominate our social life
Which sociologist developed the approach called dramaturgical analysis?
Erving Goffman
Which type of formal organization do people join in order to obtain money and other material?
utilitarian organization
Which of the following is every society's MOST important primary group?
the family
Which concept refers to the biological distinction between males and females?
sex
Which concept referes to genitals that distinguish females and males?
primary sex characteristics
Which of the following concepts refers to a person's romantic and emotional attraction to another person?
sexual orientation