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Microbiology, Exam 2
Terms in this set (120)
Why is agar a useful substance in the microbiology lab?
Agar does not solidify until it cools to about 40 C.
Which of the following forms of oxygen is often used by phagocytic cells to destroy pathogens?
Organic molecules that organisms need, but cannot synthesize all by themselves, are called ____________________.
All of the following are true statements regarding clinical specimens EXCEPT:
Universal precautions are observed in order to protect specimens from contamination.
These microbes do not have an aerobic metabolism, but they can detoxify oxygen enough to live in its presence:
All of the following are drawbacks to the use of spectrophotometry in estimating microbial growth EXCEPT:
It kills the organisms as they are being counted.
If a cell counter slide is determined to have a mean number of 20 bacterial cells per square, the total number of bacteria per ml of culture would be:
Kineococcus radiotolerans is an example of which of the following?
The most destructive form of oxygen is ____________________.
the hydroxyl radical.
A bacterial species has been determined to have a generation time of 30 minutes. If a microbiologist starts with an inoculum of 1000 cells/ml, and wants to grow it to a culture of 1,000,000 cells/ml, approximately how long should the culture be incubated?
Microbes living in geothermal springs are more likely to metabolize hydrogen than sulfur because ____________________.
they cannot obtain enough oxygen to support sulfur metabolism.
Which of the following pH levels would probably be lethal to an alkalinophile?
Which of the following elements is often growth limiting for organisms because of its limited availability?
A cell which uses an organic carbon source and obtains energy from light would be called a(n)
A microbe isolated from deep in the ocean could be characterized as a ____________________.
Both A and C are correct.
All of the following are true statements concerning types of media EXCEPT:
Media can be either selective or differential, but not both.
Why do bacterial cultures go through lag phase?
Because they are synthesizing new enzymes in order to use nutrients in their medium.
All of the following statements concerning the bacterial growth curve are true EXCEPT:
When death phase is reached, all cells in the culture have died.
All of the following are associated with the streak plate method of isolation EXCEPT:
colonies growing at and below the surface of the medium.
All of the following are direct methods of measuring microbial growth except:
Which of the following types of plasmids is associated with bacterial conjugation?
All of the following are characteristics of the genetic code EXCEPT:
More than one amino acid is associated with each codon.
Hfr cells are associated with which of the following?
Which of the following types of point mutations is usually the most serious?
All of the following are true statements concerning the replication of DNA EXCEPT:
DNA primers are replaced with RNA.
All of the following are functions of DNA methylation EXCEPT ____________________.
Which of the following functions might be associated with genes carried on a bacterial plasmid?
Which of the following stages of translation does NOT require energy in the form of GTP?
Which of the following is involved in the regulation of translation in
Ethidium bromide is an example of which of the following?
a frameshift mutagen
All of the following are true statements concerning transposons EXCEPT:
Transposons are found only in prokaryotic cells.
All of the following are true statements concerning genetic mutations EXCEPT:
Gene mutations always result in problems for cells and organisms.
All of the following are associated with prokaryotic transcription EXCEPT:
it involves three types of RNA polymerase.
Which of the following is a molecule involved in transcription termination in prokaryotic cells?
All of the following are associated with the Ames test EXCEPT:
an F plasmid.
Which of the following is the regulatory sequence responsible for control of an operon?
All of the following are events associated with RNA processing in eukaryotic cells EXCEPT ____________________.
All of the following are characteristics of RNA polymerase EXCEPT:
Which of the following DNA repair mechanisms is designed to cope with the most common type of DNA damage?
All of the following are associated with the process of DNA replication EXCEPT:
Which of the following is an example of xenotransplantation?
Implanting pig heart valves into a human heart.
Which of the following is a correct sequence of events in the PCR process?
Denaturation, Priming, Extension
All of the following can carry large genes EXCEPT:
All of the following are applications of recombinant DNA technology EXCEPT:
using bacteria to detect the presence of carcinogens.
All of the following can serve as vectors EXCEPT:
Which of the following methods of introducing DNA into cells can be used on intact tissues?
Which of the following is associated with recombinant DNA applications of herbicide resistance?
Which of the following involves molecules of single stranded DNA bound to glass slides or silicon chips?
Fluorescent nucleotides are associated with which of the following?
A gene library contains which of the following?
Both B and C are correct
All of the following are true statements concerning the gel electrophoresis of DNA molecules EXCEPT:
DNA molecules move through the gel towards the negative electrode.
The DNA polymerase from which of the following microbes is used in PCR?
All of the following are true statements concerning restriction enzymes EXCEPT:
They are found in all cells
Synthetic antisense nucleic acid molecules may one day be used for ____________________.
the control of genetic diseases
In electrophoresis, all of the following are criteria by which DNA molecules can be separated EXCEPT:
Why is PCR such a useful technique?
All of the above are correct
Reverse transcriptase produces which of the following?
Which of the following is thought to contribute to the infectious nature of the yeast Candida albicans?
Both A and C are correct.
The shelf life of certain genetically-engineered tomatoes has been lengthened due to the use of which of the following technologies?
An oral vaccine against which of the following is currently being tested?
Viruses can be cultured in the laboratory using all of the following EXCEPT:
Bacteriophages can use all of the following structures for attachment to a bacterial cell EXCEPT:
the cytoplasmic membrane
HeLa cells are an example of a(n)
continuous cell culture
Which of the following viruses creates a DNA intermediary molecule transcribed from their RNA genomes?
All of the following terms refer to viral shapes EXCEPT:
Negative-sense ssRNA viruses require which of the following enzymes for their replication?
RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase
What is the advantage of lysogeny to lambda phage?
The phage persists for generations in the bacterial chromosome
All of the following are common features of bacteriophage and animal virus infections EXCEPT:
Prions are infectious because of which of the following phenomena?
The tail fibers of a bacteriophage are associated most closely with which of the following stages of the lytic replication cycle?
Which of the following groups of viruses is replicated in the cell's nucleus?
A naked virus is one without ____________________.
The first evidence that viruses can cause some animal cancers was provided by ____________________.
Which of the following terms refers to a virus in the extracellular state?
Which of the following types of genetic material is normally found only in certain types of viruses?
The first virus to be identified was isolated from a ____________________.
The protein coat of a virus is composed of subunits called ____________________.
Viruses lack all of the following EXCEPT:
Which of the following viruses exhibits a lysogenic replication cycle?
Why do viruses have to infect host cells?
They are dependent on host cell organelles and enzymes for their replication
Nitrogen fixation is a process that occurs in all bacteria.
A selective medium can be formulated by either including inhibitory chemical substances or by leaving out a single crucial nutrient.
Quorum sensing is a process by which bacteria respond to the density of other bacteria in their environment.
In spectrophotometry, 40% light transmission is the same thing as 60% absorbance of light.
Agar is a useful compound in the microbiology lab because it is an excellent nutrient for bacteria.
Facultative anaerobes would be found growing mostly at the bottom of the tube.
Obligate anaerobes have enzymes such as superoxide dismutase to protect them from the damaging effects of oxygen.
Thermoduric mesophiles are often responsible for spoilage of improperly canned foods.
Organisms that are anaerobes usually have the enzyme catalase or SOD.
An obligate halophile will burst if placed in freshwater.
The structure of DNA explains both its ability to encode genetic information and the way in which it is copied during cell reproduction.
Positive selection methods work by eliminating cells with wild-type phenotypes, leaving only mutants.
Prokaryotes have one type of DNA polymerase, which is different from that of eukaryotes.
DNA, which is negatively charged, wraps around positively charged histones as part of the packaging of eukaryotic chromosomes.
The most common type of mutation is a point mutation.
Vibrio is a genus of bacteria that have 2 chromosomes.
Bidirectional replication means that each strand of a DNA molecule is replicated in the opposite direction from the other.
Prokaryotic cells are diploid.
In generalized transduction, viruses carry random DNA sequences from one cell to another.
Most bacteria have a natural ability to take up DNA from their environment.
Circular DNA molecules are generally more stable inside cells than linear molecules.
Large DNA molecules such as chromosomes are easier to work with than small molecules.
Reverse transcriptase synthesizes a DNA molecule from an RNA template.
The number of DNA molecules produced during PCR increases exponentially.
Any foreign DNA inserted into a cell will be inherited by that cell's progeny.
Nitrocellulose membranes used in Southern blotting are more delicate than agarose gels.
Protoplast fusion is enhanced by the presence of polyethylene glycol.
Sticky end fragments generated by EcoRI will ligate to any other sticky-end sequence.
Gene therapy for human genetic diseases has not been successful yet.
Southern blotting is a technique that can be used to identify microbes that cannot be cultured.
Baceriophage release is a gradual process with small amounts being released at a time.
Virus vaccines are always cultured in embryonated chicken eggs.
Most viruses cannot be seen by light microscopy.
Transcription of RNA from RNA does not occur in cells.
The largest viruses are about the size of the smallest eukaryotic cell.
Bacteriophages are cheaper and easier to culture than animal viruses.
Poxvirus is assembled in the cytoplasm of the cell instead of in the nucleus, as most dsDNA viruses are.
Host DNA codes for some of the proteins in the viral envelope.
Assembly of new viruses is a process that usually requires a variety of viral and cellular enzymes to direct it.
The majority of human cancers are caused by viruses.
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