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EDF3110 Chapter Six
Terms in this set (79)
What is needed from caregivers for basic trust vs. mistrust?
- Sympathetic, loving balance of care
What is needed from caregivers for the autonomy vs. shame and doubt?
- Suitable guidance and reasonable choices
- Reasonable expectations for impulse control
The earliest emotions consist of two arousal states:
- Attraction to pleasant stimulation
- Withdrawal from unpleasant stimulation
What patterns form with age?
Face, voice, and posture
Who do emotions become organized and specific?
Support by sensitive caregiving and mirroring
When is happiness shown?
Smile: From birth
Social smile: 6-10 weeks
Laughter: 3-4 months
When is anger and sadness shown:
- General distress: From birth
- Angry expressions: 4-6 months
- Sadness: Response to disrupted caregiver-infant communication
When is fear shown?
6 months, keeps exploration in check; caregiver as secure base
Stranger anxiety: Most frequent expression of fear
Maternal depression - chronic or postpartum affects:
- Infants sleep, attention, and stress hormones
- Hinders motor and cognitive development and emotion regulation
Paternal depression is linked to what?
Child behavior problems
What can be done to facilitate caregiving and reduce negative views?
Matching caregiver's tone?
Sensitivity to face-to-face interactions
Distinguishing positive from negative emotion in voices and facial expressions
Seeking emotional information from a trusted person to appraise an uncertain situation
Social referencing helps toddlers to:
- Evaluate surroundings
- Guide their actions
- Understand others
What is more useful than facial expression and why?
Adult voice supports focusing on activity
When do self-conscious emotions begin to appear?
Middle of second year
What are the self-conscious emotions?
What can self-conscious emotions do?
Injure or enhance sense of self
What do self-emotions require?
Self-awareness and adult prompting in when to feel emotions
What do self-conscious emotions influence?
Achievement-related and moral behavior
Emerges as motor and language skills develop
Why does emotional self-regulation improve rapidly during the first few years?
Due to brain development and caregiver support
What do caregivers teach in emotional self-regulation?
Socially approved ways of expression
Can one regulate emotional self-regulation as the children reach 2?
Early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation
What does Thomas and Chess's Model state?
- Easy child (40%)
- Difficult child (10%)
- Slow-to-warm-up child (15%)
- Unclassified children (35%)
According to Rothbart's Model of Temperament, what is included in reactivity?
- Activity level
- Attention span/persistence
- Fearful distress
- Irritable distress
- Positive affect
What is included in self-regulation?
Effortful control: Predicts favorable adjustment
What are the opposite extremes of temperament?
- Shyness and sociability
Withdraw from novel stimuli
Approach novel stimuli
What are the neurobiological correlates of shyness and sociability:
- Heart rate, saliva concentration of cortisol, pupil dilation, blood pressure, skin surface temperature
Child rearing influences what?
Persistence of temperament
Low in infancy and toddlerhood
When is temperament more stable?
After 3 years old
What are influential factors of temperament?
- Child rearing
- Effortful control and emotional reactivity
- Brain development enabling impulse suppression
What are genetic influences in heredity and environment in temperament?
- Responsible for half of individual differences
- Vary with trait and age
- Gender differences
What are environmental influences in heredity and environment in temperament?
- Quality of caregiving
- Cultural variations
- Gender stereotyping
- Parental distinctions among sibling
Encourages an effective match between child rearing and child's temperament
Successful child rearing is associated with:
- Responsive to child's temperament
- Simultaneously encourages more adaptive functioning
Begins with innate signals that keep parent nearby; over time, affectionate bond forms
Bowlby's Ethological Theory of Attachment
What are in Bowlby's Ethological Theory of Attachment?
- Clear-cut attachment; separation anxiety
- Formation of reciprocal relationship
Expectations about availability of attachment figures
Internal working model
Baby's reunion responses define attachment quality
What are the attachment qualities?
- Secure (60%)
- Insecure-avoidant (15%)
- Insecure-resistant (10%)
- Disorganized/disoriented (15%)
Home observation of 90 behaviors; more precise measure
Attachment Q-Sort (ages 1-5)
What are factors that affect attachment security?
- Early availability of consistent caregivers
- Quality of caregiving
- Infant characteristics
- Family circumstances
- Parents' internal working models
What can result in attachment insecurity?
- At-risk newborns
- Emotionally reactive babies
- Certain genotypes combined with insensitive parenting
- Mother's experience of trauma
What indirect stressors can cause insensitive caregiving?
Financial and marital
What direct stressors disrupt emotional climate and routines?
Angry adult interactions
Factors fostering attachment security?
- Reducing stress
- Improving parent-child communication
- Social support
What multiple attachments can be formed?
- Professional caregivers
Often expressed through sensitive, stimulating play
Fathers' sensitive caregiving
Sensitive, stimulating play predicts what?
Children's favorable emotional and social adjustment
Father involvement is promoted by:
- Time spent in physical proximity to baby
- Intimacy and cooperation between parents
What are risk factor for having child care in infancy?
- Insensitive caregiving
- Long hours in child care
- More than one child-care arrangement
What are supportive factors for child care in infancy?
- High-quality child care and fewer hours
- Small group sizes
- Generous caregiver-child ratios
- Caregivers educated about child rearing
Secure attachment is related to?
Later cognitive, emotional, and social competence
Continuity of caregiving promotes what?
Long-term effects of early attachment are?
Dependent on the quality of future relationships
- Newborn capacity for intermodal perception
- Discrimination own limb and facial movements
Beginnings of Self-Awareness
- Point to self in photos
- Refer to self by name: "I" or "me"
- Recognize own shadow
- Communicate concern when others are distressed
- Offer others what they consider comforting
- Cooperate in resolving disputes over objects
- Aware of how to upset others
Infants on what that contribute to self-awareness?
Environment, distinguishing self, other people, and objects
What are the cultural variations that contribute to self-awareness?
- Autonomous child rearing facilities earlier mirror self-recognition
- Relational child rearing facilitates earlier capacity for compliance
Joint attention allows toddlers to do what for their self-awareness?
Compare their own and others' reactions to objects and events
Classifying self and others are based on?
- Physical characteristics
- Goodness vs. badness
Categorical self develops between what ages?
1 1/2 and 2 1/2
The categorial self is used to what?
Organize their own behavior, including gender-typed activity
Ability to inhibit impulses, manage negative emotion, and behave in socially acceptable ways
Self-control depends on:
- Awareness of self as separate, autonomous being
- Confidence in directing own actions
- Memory for caregiver's directives
Compliance of self-control shows what?
Clear awareness of caregivers' wishes and expectations
Delay of gratification is influenced by what?
How can one foster toddler compliance and self-control?
- Respond with sensitivity and encouragement
- Give advance notice of change in activity
- Offer many prompts and reminders
- Reinforce self-controlled behavior
- Encourage sustained attention
- Support language development
- Increase rules gradually
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