the society that developed in the eastern Roman Empire after the west fell...thrived for more than a thousand years before falling to the Ottomans in 1453.
First great leader of the Byzantine empire. Ended the Nika Revolt, Justinian's Code, Built Hagia Sophia
Corpus Juris Civilis
Body of civil law, massive collection of laws, legal writings and handbooks for students...contained four parts: Codex, Digests, Institutes, and Novel
Why was the Novel written in Greek?
It was the language commonly spoke throughout the Byzantine Empire. This allowed for everyone to know and understand the new laws.
empress of the Byzantine empire, Justinian's wife, and a fearless and powerful co-ruler...she was the one who convinced Justinian to stand against the Nika revolt.
Pictures made with pieces of colored stone or glass...the most prominent form of art in Byzantine Empire. Most of the works were of religious subjects.
A group of Christians that objected to the practice of using images or icons in worship...believing that the use of these icons was leading followers away from the basic church tenet of one god.
The Final Schism
1054, the final split within the Christian Church. Separating into the Catholic Church in the West and the Greek Orthodox Church in the East.
Defeated and took Constantinople in 1453, bringing an end to the Byzantine Empire
New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian
Cyril and Methodius
Christian monks who adapted the Greek alphabet to form a Slavic written language...the Cyrillic alphabet. They used this to translate religious works that aided in their conversion of Slavs to Christianity.
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015; converted kingdom to Christianity
Russian prince of Novgorod who allied with the Mongols to help his people survive. Later he defeated German Teutonic Knights that had invaded their territory.
Founder of the Mongol Empire. He and his followers wreaked havoc on Eastern Europeans during his reign.
a group of Germanic warriors who invaded Britain in the 400s and established seven small kingdoms.
Germanic people from Gaul (modern day France and Switzerland) led by a king named Clovis...converted to Christianity.
Archbishop of Canterbury
the most influential church office in England
Alfred the Great
The first great king of England...united the Seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to drive out the Danes.
one of the most famous missionaries who converted the Irish to Christianity
What were the roles of Monks/Monasteries in Medieval Europe
Ran Schools, copied ancient manuscripts, acted as advisers to rulers.
Powerful Frankish ruler who built a huge empire
a Frankish dynasty founded by Charlemagne's father that ruled from 751 to 987
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia.
1st Viking or European (with his dad) to reach North America (Nova Scotia, Canada).
nomadic people who overran Eastern Europe and parts of Western Europe after A.D. 900...nomadic raiders who were skilled horsemen. Eventually settled in the region of Hungary.
Attack Europe in early 700s from North Africa. They would rule the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) for more than 700 years. Their conquest of France was stopped by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours.
A system of trading loyalties for protection in the Middle Ages.
Mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords' lands in exchange for fiefs.
People were governed during the Middle Ages in Europe...they used land to pay Knights to serve as their defenders. They were responsible for protecting their subjects and to resolve disputes between knights.
The land given to a knight for his services.
an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy who invaded England in 1066 and claimed the English crown.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
One of the most powerful women in the middle ages. Henry II married her to gain her lands.
A written legal agreement signed in 1215 that limited the English monarch's power.
Britain's law-making assembly...created in the late 13th century.
An undistinguished duke from the middle of France...started the Capetian Dynasty...by 1300 they ruled most of modern France.
Holy Roman Empire
962-1806... Otto I (The Great) was the First Emperor Covered much of Italy, Germany, and France. It was called "holy" because of the support from the Pope.
the Christian "reconquest" of the Iberian Peninsula
Pope Gregory VII
Pope who claimed power over kings and feudal nobles
Holy Roman Emperor, was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII.
Why was the medieval clergy so influential?
Christian church had strong influence over daily lives of most Europeans; clergy were the people's link to the church.
A long series of wars between Christians and Muslims over control of the Holy Lands
Jerusalem and parts of the surrounding area where Jesus lived and taught
Pope Urban II
Medieval pope, he called on Christians to launch the First Crusade
Islamic general who led the Muslims during the crusades
King Richard the Lion-Hearted
King of England during the Third Crusade...aka the King's Crusade.
Called for by Pope Urban, the "Holy Crusaders" left Europe in 1096. Along the way they slaughtered villages of Jews. 1099, Jerusalem fell the Christian crusaders; the only successful crusade.
Epic struggle between Richard the Lion Heart and Saladin. In the end, Richard was forced to admit it was a draw and return to England...leaving Saladin in charge of the Holy Lands.
Effects of the Crusades
Trade between the areas increased. Kings gained more power. Knowledge of Muslim culture spread throughout Europe, Relations between Christians and Jews became increasingly strained.
r. 958-986 King of Norway and Denmark, 1st Scandinavian king to be Christianized and promote it, Lead many Viking raids. His initials are the symbol for his namesake technology.