62 terms

PBHS - AP Government - Unit 10

Requirements for the position of president:
- Age: At least 35
- Citizenship: Must be a naturally born citizen of the United States of America
- Residency: At least 14 years
What effect did the following Amendment have on the office of the president? - 12th Amendment
President and Vice President run on one ticket (must vote for them
What effect did the following Amendment have on the office of the president? - 20th Amendment
Terms of Office, Convening of Congress, and Succession
Presidential and Vice-Presidential terms begins and ends on the 20th of January
What effect did the following Amendment have on the office of the president? - 22nd Amendment
Number of Presidential Terms (max of 2 terms or up to one day shy of 10 years)
What effect did the following Amendment have on the office of the president? - 25th Amendment
Presidential Succession, Disability and Vice Presidential Vacancies
What are the Presidential Powers established by the Constitution?: Commander in Chief
Head of the Army, Navy, and State Militia (Making military decisions and such)
What are the Presidential Powers established by the Constitution?: Chief Diplomat
In charge of foreign affairs (Appoints diplomats, meets with foreign leaders, creates treaties)
What are the Presidential Powers established by the Constitution?: Chief of State
Leader of the nation, must make State of the Union Address each year
What are the Presidential Powers established by the Constitution?: Chief Executive
Head of all executive agencies (ATF, FBI, IRS, ...)
What are the Presidential Powers established by the Constitution?: Judicial Powers
Appoints federal judges, power of pardon & reprieve
What are the Presidential Powers established by the Constitution?: Chief Legislator
Can greatly influence the legislative process by proposing legislation through loyal members of Congress, can veto legislation
Cabinet: What is it?
A Presidential appointed group of advisers and officials, approved by the Senate.
Cabinet: It is part of what?
The Executive branch
Cabinet: Who first created it?
George Washington
Cabinet: Who was the first Secretary of State?
Thomas Jefferson
Cabinet: Who was the first Secretary of the Treasury?
Alexander Hamilton
Cabinet: The cabinet is part of what?
The Unwritten Constitution
Cabinet: Identify a recent Secretary of State?
1) Colin Powell (2001-2005) under Bush
2) Condoleezza Rice (2005-2009) under Bush
3) Hillary Clinton (2009-present) under Obama
Cabinet: Identify a recent Secretary of Defense?
1) Donald Rumsfeld (2001-2005) under Bush
2) Robert Gates (2005-present) under Bush and Obama
Cabinet: Identify a recent Attorney General?
1) John Ashcroft (2001-2005) under Bush
2) Alberto R. Gonzales (2005-2007) under Bush
3) Eric Holder (2009-present) under Obama
What is a veto?
Latin for "I forbid", is the power or right to prohibit or reject a proposed or intended act (especially the power of a chief executive to reject a bill passed by the legislature).
What is a pocket veto? (Abraham Lincoln used it to veto the Wade Davis Bill)
When the President withholds approval of a bill after Congress has adjourned, thereby killing the bill without a formal veto. The President has 10 days to approve a bill
What can Congress do when a president vetoes a bill?
Both chambers, House and Senate, must come up with a two-thirds majority to over-ride the veto.
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
Treaty that finalized the end of World War I. President Wilson's 14 Points were meant to be the basis for the Treaty of Versailles, but the European powers chose to severely punish German for its action. Wilson was actively involved in the writing of the Treaty of Versailles. Ultimately, the Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles
From the US perspective, what happened to the Treaty of Versailles and why?
The US did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles because they did not support the League of Nations. The reasons that the US never joined the League were that many citizens of the US did not want to be involved with European affairs. The United States began to practice Isolationism. Joining the league would also involve sending soldiers to other parts of the world and that cost money that the United States did not have a lot of.
What was Jay's Treaty?
Ratified by the Senate in 1797. Chief Justice John Jay negotiated this treaty with Great Britain. Under Jay's Treaty, the British agreed to leave areas in the Northwest Territory which they had been required to return earlier, under the Treaty of Paris. This treaty did not, however, oblige the British to observe American neutral rights. Despite the fact that Jay's Treaty was very unpopular, it was ratified by the Senate: 20-10. For the next fifteen years, the United States benefited from the treaty greatly.
How does the 1973 War Powers Resolution affect the president's power?
United States federal law providing that the President can send U.S. armed forces into action abroad only by authorization of Congress or if the United States is already under attack or serious threat. The War Powers Resolution requires that the president notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces to military action and forbids armed forces from remaining for more than 60 days without an authorization of the use of military force or a declaration of war.
Why did Congress create this law?
This began because the United States was involved in military conflicts without being technically at "war". Prime examples of this are Vietnam and Korea. Also, this law expands the power of the legislative branch at the expense of the executive branch.
National Security Policy
The Presidents national and domestic policies used to help strengthen our nation. In the realm of foreign policy, this includes peace treaties, trade agreements, security measures, and war time actions.
Chief Diplomat
Presidential power, he recognizes other countries, terminate relations with other countries, sole power to negotiate treaties, presidents can also negotiate executive agreements with other nation, and appointing diplomats. Most of these need Senatorial approval or are limited.
Treaty of Portsmouth
Teddy Roosevelt assists in ending Russo-Japanese War in 1905.
Treaty of Versailles
rejected by the Senate - wanted to return to normalcy / isolationism. One provision found within the charter of the League of Nations would have allowed the League to require US troops to be sent overseas. US did not want to get involved in another European conflict
Jay's Treaty
US agreement with England during England's war with France.US got British troops to leave US soil and received access to British colonial markets. Jefferson quit Washington's cabinet over this treaty
Commander - in - Chief
Presidential powers, civilian control of the military (Truman / MacArthur conflict), leader of armed forces, leads policy, can choose operations (Ex: Truman picked targets / dates for atomic bomb).
1973 War Powers Resolution
President is expected to consult with Congress before using military force and Congress can force president to withdraw troops within 60 days if approval or declarations of war are not given.
Camp David Accords
signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The two agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The Accords led directly to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty.
The Watergate Scandal
The events surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under threat of impeachment.
The Twenty-Fifth Amendment
Deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, and responds to the possibilities of presidential disabilities.
Presidential Cabinet
A group of advisors to the President consisting of executive branch leaders who aid him or her in decisions on policy and administer government departments.
Presidential Veto
The constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it. A two-thirds vote in each house can override a veto
Grassroots Support
People or societal support on a local level rather than at the center of major political activity.
Political Ideology
A belief system that explains and justifies a preferred economic and governmental order for society, offers strategies for its maintenance or attainment and helps give meaning to public events, personalities and policies.
Twenty-Second Amendment
Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms in office.
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the President by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Running Mate
a person running together with another person on a joint ticket during an election. The term is most often used in reference to the person in the subordinate position such as the Vice President running with a presidential candidate. example: Joe Biden to Obama
Taking over for a president that leaves office due to: death, resigning, or impeachment (House can only impeach the president for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors")
22nd Amendment
ratified in 1951, limits the US president to only holding office for two terms
25th Amendment
presidential succession (Temporary - in times
when president is incapacity or unable to perform his duties. Ex. Surgery, sickness. Decided by President or a vote by the VP and the cabinet) (Permanent - VP, Speaker, Pro Tempore, Secretary of State, ...) creating way to select new VP
Secretary of State
cabinet department responsible for making foreign policy and handling treaty negotiations
Office of Management and Budget
prepares the budget to be sent to Congress for approval, part of executive branch
National Security Council
links the president's key foreign and military policy advisors
White House Staff
president sees daily and relies heavily on for information, policy option, and analysis
"wheel-and-spokes" system
many aides with equal status balanced against on and other in the decision making process. (JFK's model - all his cabinet members are equal)
Pocket Veto
situation in which the President lets a bill die by neither signing nor vetoing it after congress is adjourned. Can ONLY be used when Congress is adjourned
Presidential Coattails
voters casting their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party who will support the president
Mid-term Election
a congressional election that is not accompanied by a presidential election. President's party typically loses seats.
Electoral Mandates
consist of the perception that the voters strongly support the winners positions. Usually has a positive effect on the president's level of support in Congress
Chief Diplomat
The president is the chief diplomat of the United States.
The President can:
-Extend diplomatic recognition to a nation
-Negotiate treaties with other nations
-Negotiate executive agreements which do not require congressional approval
-Mediate disputes between nations other than the united states
War Powers Resolution
-War powers Resolution may be able to be overturned by the supreme court because it uses a legislative veto which may violate the separation of powers
-Requires the president to notify congress within 48 hours of sending armed forces in to military action
-Forbids troops for staying in said area for more than 60 days without authorization of force, or a declaration of war
Times of Crisis
-Most crises occur in the area of foreign policy
-Crises are rarely the presidents doing
-The president has become more prominent in the handling of crises than other branches of government
Media events
a planned event that attracts the media's attention for the good of the campaign
Bully pulpit
a public office of sufficiently high rank that provides the holder with an opportunity to speak out and be listened to on any matter.