Biol 421 Exam 1

Carolus Linnaeus
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Terms in this set (81)
bilateral symmetrymid-sagittal plane splits into left and right halvestransverse planedivides into anterior posterior or superior inferiorcoronaldivides into dorsal and ventralsupineon the back or face-upproneon the stomach or face-downheadprominent expanded end, especially of a bonenecknarrow projection often connectingshaftlong, middle portion of a boneprocessa bony projectioncondylea smooth, rounded projection, typically for a jointarticulationwhere bones meet with mobilitytuberclea smooth, rounded process (of bone)tuberosityrough area on a bone surface where muscles insertcresta narrow ridgelinea smaller ridgespinea bony projectionfossaa shallow depressionseptuma dividing structuresulcusa groove or furrow; where a nerve or blood vessel may layalveolustooth socketforamena round hole, often in bone that lets blood vessels and nerves pass throughfissurea narrow slit in a bone which objects can passcanala tunnel through bonemeatusa tunnel through bonesinusan air-filled cavity in a bonedeuterostomesechinoderms, hemichordates, chordates - "second mouth" - blastopore becomes anus - radial cleavage - coelom develops as outline of primitive gut - mesodermal skeletonprotostomesmollusks, annelids, anthropods - "first mouth" - blastopore becomes mouth - spiral cleavage - coelom develops from mesoderm separation - ectodermal skeletonchordate characteristics1. dorsal hollow nerve chord 2. notochord 3. postanal tail 4. endostyle (or thyroid gland) 5. pharyngeal slitsnotochord- elastic, fluid-filled structure - provides support - facilitates movement (swimming) - accentuates muscle actionspharyngeal slits- digestive tract chamber posterior to mouth - can support gills in future vertebrates - facilitate feeding mechanism in early chordates - present in all but not always functionalprotochordates- all marine animals - feed by cilia and mucus (filtration) - larval forms pelagic or planktonic - adult forms benthic or sessile - 3 groups: hemichordata (acorn worms), urochordata (sea squirts), cephalochordata (amphioxus)hemichordates- deuterostomes - pharyngeal slits - invagination fo nerve chord - lack notochordenteropneustsacorn worms 3 body regions: proboscis, collar, trunkpterobranchia- live in secreted tubules - colonial organismsurochordates"tail backstring" - show all 5 chordate characteristics at one point 3 classes: Ascidiacea (sea squirts), Larvacea, Thaliaceacephalochordates- earliest version from Cambrian period - Chordate components: pharyngeal slits, notochord, tubular nerve chord, postanal tail - suspension feeding - laval form planktonicmonophyletica clade; all organisms in a lineage and their common ancestorphylogenycourse of evolutionary change within related group or organismsparaphyleticincomplete clade resulting from removal of one or more lineagespolyphyleticartificial group characterized by features not homologouspaedomorphosisretention of juvenile features in descendant adultsneotonypaedomorphosis produced by delayed onset of somatic development that is overtaken by normal sexual maturityprogenesispaedomorphosis produced by precocious onset of sexual maturity in an individual still in the morphologically juvenile stagestomesuffix for "mouth"gnathprefix for "jaw"plesiomorphicoriginal condition of ancestorsapomorphicderived condition from descendantssymplesiomorphicshared ancestral condition among a collection of related organismssynapomorphichomologous character shared by two or more groups, which originated in their last common ancestorzonareaction of the egg to prevent polyspermyholoblasticcomplete yolk divisionacrosomereaction of the sperm that enables fertilization of an eggmicrolethicalsmall amt of yolkgastrulationformation of the primitive gutneurulationformation of neural tubesomitescollections of mesoderm cells that will give rise to muscles in various systemsmesodermgerm cell layer that will ultimately give rise to skeletal and muscle tissuesectodermgerm cell layer that will ultimately give rise to integument and neural tissuesprotostomeblastopore becomes the mouthendodermgerm cell layer that will ultimately give rise to the lining of the lungs and gutdiscoidalcleavage of the animal pole only, localized to one small portion of the eggepithelialthe type of cell that covers surfaces and lines tubesfibroblastmetabolically and mitotically active cell of connective tissuereticular membraneextracellular matrix on which epithelial cells sitcancellousspongy boneosteoblastcell that lays down new bone during osseous remodelinghematopoieticcells that give rise to the various blood cell elementsneuroectodermportions of the neural crest which break off and migrate; give rise to peripheral neural structures of the bodyheterochronydevelopmental appearance of a structure at a time distinct from when it appears in an ancestordiaphysisshaft portion of a long bonecartilagerelatively avascular flexible connective tissue