32 terms

Biological Macromolecules

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Organic Molecule
A type of molecule found in living things and containing carbon
Elements that make up Carbohydrates
Carbon, Hydrogen & Water
Monosaccharide
Molecule made of only one sugar
Disaccharide
Molecule made of two sugars
Polysaccharide
Molecule made of many sugars
Starch
Form in which plants store glucose for energy
Glycogen
Form in which animals store glucose for energy
Cellulose
Glucose polysaccharide that makes up cell walls
Amino Acids
Subunits (building blocks) of Proteins
Enzyme
Protein that helps chemical reactions happen faster
Triglyceride
Iipid made of Glycerol and 3 fatty acid chains
Phospholipid
Lipid that is a major part of cell membranes,
Testosterone & Estrogen
Lipid hormones, involved in reproduction
Nucleotides
Made of a Nitrogen Base, a Sugar, and a Phosphate Group
Deoxyribose
Sugar that helps make up DNA
Ribose
Sugar that helps make up RNA
DNA
Nucleic acid that stores Genetic Information
Mono-
prefix meaning "one" or "single"
Di-
prefix meaning "two"
Poly-
prefix meaning "many"
Polymer
a molecule that has a large # of repeating units
Lipids
Examples include fats, oils, waxes and steroids
Dehydration Synthesis
Joining two molecules together with the removal of water.
Hydrolysis
breaking of chemical bonds by the addition of water
Chitin
Glucose polysaccharide that makes up the exoskeleton of insects
Pentose
Any 5 carbon sugar (example: deoxyribose)
Phospholipid
Primary component of the cell membrane
Steroids
4 fused rings, includes cholesterol and sex hormones
Cholesterol
Lipid that helps maintain structural integrity of cell membrane,
Saturated Fats
Contain no double bonds, solid at room temperature
Unsaturated Fats
Double bonds create a "kink" that makes this lipid liquid at room temperature
Amino Acids
Subunits of proteins