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77 terms

Nutrition and Wellness (Comprehensive- ALL UNITS!)

Terms from all units
STUDY
PLAY
Culture
everything about the way a group of people lives
Emotional health
the overall condition of a person's emotions
Health
combined state of physical, psychological, emotional, and social well being
Lifestyle
everything about the way one person, a couple, or a family choose to live
Nutrition
the study of nutrients and how they are used by the body
Organic food
a food produced without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, or growth hormones
Physical health
the overall condition of a person's body
Psychological health
the overall condition of a person's attitudes
Social health
the overall condition of a person's ability to relate to others around them
Technology
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as reaching goals, meeting needs, and solving problems
Wellness
the process of acquiring and maintaining physical, psychological, emotional, and social health
Amino acid
one of the building blocks of protein molecules
Antioxidant
a substance that helps protect your body from cell damage that can lead to health problems
Atherosclerosis
hardened and narrowed arteries caused by plaque deposits
Carbohydrate
an essential nutrient that is the body's main source of energy; includes sugars and starches
Cholesterol
a waxy liquid found in every cell of the body; found in foods from animal sources
Complete protein
a protein that contains all the essential amino acids
Complex carbohydrates
starches; carbohydrates made of many sugars attached together
Dehydration
a state in which the body contains a lower than normal amount of body fluid
Dental caries
tooth decay
Diabetes mellitus
lack of, or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the build up of glucose in the bloodstream
Dietary fiber
plant material that cannot be digested
Diuretic
a substance that increases urine production
Essential amino acid
an amino acid that cannot be made by the body and must be supplied by the diet
Fat
a nutrient that provides a concentrated source of energy, and helps protect the body from sudden changes in outside temperature
Fat soluble vitamin
a vitamin that dissolves in fats; A,D,E, and K
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)
picks up cholesterol from around the body and transports it back to the liver for removal from the body
Hypoglycemia
low blood glucose levels
Incomplete protein
a protein that is missing one or more of the essential amino acids
Lactose intolerance
inability to digest lactose
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)
carries cholesterol made by the liver to the blood cells
Macromineral
a mineral required in the diet in an amount of 100 milligrams or more per day
Micromineral
a mineral required in the diet in an amount less than 100 mg
Non essential amino acid
an amino acid that can be synthesized by the body
Nutrient
a chemical substance in food that helps to maintain the body
Phytochemicals
enhancing non-nutrient compounds in plant foods that are active in the body at the cellular level
Protein
one of the six basic nutrients composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; the body uses it for growth and maintenance
Saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that has no double bonds in its chemical structure and carries a full load of hydrogen atoms; solid at room temperature.
Simple carbohydrates
sugars; carbohydrates made of one or two sugar units
Trans-fatty acid
a fatty acid with an odd molecule shape that forms when oils are partially hydrogenated
Starch
a polysaccharide that is the storage form of energy in plants; a complex carbohydrate found in foods such as potatoes, corn, rice, grits, pasta,oatmeal, and cornmeal
Water soluble vitamin
a vitamin that dissolves in water and is not stored in the body; examples include vitamin C or B complex
Unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid that has at least one double bond between two carbon atoms in a carbon atom chain and is missing at least two hydrogen atoms; is liquid at room temperature
Anorexia nervosa
a psychological disorder in which one eats very little or refuses to eat
Binge eating disorder
a psychological disorder in which one binges but does not purge or exercise excessively
Bulimia nervosa
a psychological disorder in which one repeatedly binges and then purges
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
a set of guidelines about food choices developed by the US government
Eating disorder
extreme, unhealthy behavior relating to food, eating and weight
Food additive
a substance added to food products that causes desired changes in the products
Food drug interaction
a physical or chemical effect a drug has on a food or a food has on a drug
Genetic engineering
the science of changing the genetic makeup of an organism
Irradiation
a commercial food preservation method that exposes food to gamma rays to increase shelf life and kill harmful microorganisms
MyPyramid
USDA's guide for a personalized approach to healthy eating and physical activity; found at www.mypyramid.gov
Aerobic activity
physical activity that requires oxygen as it works the heart and lungs
Anabolic steroid
an artificial hormone used to build a more muscular body
Anaerobic activity
an activity in which the muscles are using oxygen faster than the heart and lungs can deliver it
Balance
being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves his body (see also Coordination)
Body composition
the percentage of different types of tissues in the body, such as fat, muscle, and bone
Carbohydrate loading
a technique used by endurance athletes to trick the muscles into storing glycogen for extra energy
Cardio respiratory endurance
how well the heart and lungs can keep up with physical activity
Coordination
being able to control the muscles and stay upright as one moves his body
Electrolytes
sodium, chloride, and potassium working together to maintain the body's fluid balance
Endurance
the ability to keep working the muscles without becoming overly tired
Energy balance
the point at which the energy from the food eaten equals the energy used by the body
Fad diets
weight loss plans that are popular for a short time and are often based on misinformation, unusual requirements, and promises of immediate weight loss
Minerals
nutrients that regulate the body processes or become a part of body tissues
Intensity
the speed and power of movement during physical activities
Physical activity
the use of muscles to move the body
Physical fitness
a state in which all body systems function together efficiently
Sedentary
physically inactive
Strength
power to work the muscles against resistance
Target heart rate
the range of heartbeats per minute at which the heart muscle receives the best workout; 60 to 90 percent of maximum heart rate
Flexibility
the ability to move muscles and joints through a full range of motion
Vegetarianism
practice of eating a diet consisting entirely or largely of food from plant sources
Vitamins
nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes
Sugars
a collective term used to refer to all the monosaccharides and disaccharides
Body Mass Index (BMI)
a calculation of body weight and height used to define underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obesity