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Emergency Medicine EOR Exam
Terms in this set (295)
Dilated Cardiomyopathy: most common cause is ____. Others?
alcohol; may also be idiopathic, myocarditis, or drugs (doxorubicin) -- 1 in 3 cases of heart failure are caused by dilated cardiomyopathy
What PE and EKG changes are seen with dilated cardiomyopathy?
PE: S3, JVD, crackles - possible mitral regurg
EKG: nonspecific ST and T wave changes, LBBB
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: is due to hypertrophy of the _____. PE reveals mitral regurgitation, a ____heart sound, and prominent left ventricular impulse. EKG reveals LVH
cardiac septum; S4
Restrictive cardiomyopathy: often caused by a ____process, or post-radiation or post open-heart surgery. What is the most common first symptom?
--infiltrative process - amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, and hemochromatosis -- changes in myocardium
--most common first symptom is exertion intolerance and fluid retention, signs of right heart failure
Atrial fibrillation - regularly irregular - the most common sustained arrhythmia in adults - what three treatments are used?
1. rate control w BB, CCB, or digoxin
2. Anticoagulation w heparin & warfarin
3. rhythm control w amiodarone or cardioversion
Atrial flutter - sawtooth pattern in II, III, aVF - what three treatments are used?
1. cardioversion if no contraindications
2. acute rate control tx w BB, CCB - amiodarone, sotalol, quinidine, or procainamide
3. If site of reentrant is known, catheter ablation
Multifocal atrial tachycardia - noted in patients with COPD or severe systemic illness - EKG shows multiple shaped P waves and differing PR intervals. ____are agents of choice?
1. ____=prolonged PR interval
2.____=progressive increase in PR until Pwave is blocked.
3._____=sudden block in P wave w no change in PR
4._____=atrial and ventricular rhythm are independent of each other.
First degree; Wenckebach Mobitz type I; Mobitz type II, Third degree block
A _____may develop after acute MI, PE, aortic stenosis and is due to a conduction delay in the right or left bundles.
Bundle branch block
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is a reentry tachycardia, commonly noted in elderly patients with underlying heart disease. What treatment may be helpful before using adenosine ie. the drug of choice?
vagal maneuvers or antianxiety medication
What are some drugs associated with Torsades de pointes?
tricyclic antidepressants, erythromycin, ketoconazole, haloperidol, cisapride, disopyramide, pentamidine, sotalol, class I anti-arrhythmics
CHF - Systolic dysfunction means a problem with the ____. What drug is contraindicated?
CHF - Diastolic dysfunction means a problem with the ____.
compliance or relaxation of the heart during ventricular filling
The ________principle means that as preload increases, the ventricle is stretched during diastole filling and the ejection fraction is increased.
_____is released from cardiac ventricles in response to increased wall tension.
BNP - B-type natriuretic peptide
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