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World History Final Terms

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Divine Right of Kings
Belief that God chooses kings to rule nations.
Bourgeoise
Urban middle class, including merchants, manufacturers, and Professionals.
Conscription
Military draft.
Coup d'Etat
Seizure of power by force; in French, a "stroke of state".
Factors of Production
Basic resources for industrialization, such as necessary land, capital, and labor.
Capitalism
Economic system in which individuals, rather than governments, control the factors of production.
Mass Production
System of producing large numbers of identical items.
Laissez-faire
Belief that governments should not interfere with the operations of businesses.
Socialism
Political and economic system in which the government own the means of production.
Imperialism
Ambition of a powerful nation to dominate the political, economic, and cultural affairs of another nation or region.
Dependent Colonies
Colonies in which a few officals from one country (usually European) rule (non-European) people of another country.
Allied Powers
Alliance that included Great Britian, France, Russia (later the Soviet Union), the United States, and other countries during WWI and WWII.
Propaganda
Ideas, facts, or rumors spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause.
Communist Party
New name of the Russian Bolsheviks who dissolved the constitutional assembly in 1918.
Armistice
Agreement signed by leaders of warring nations to stop fighting.
League of Nations
World organization formed after WWI to maintain peace.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty between Germany and the Allied Powers at the end of WWI.
Economic Nationalism
Policy that a nation uses to try to imporve its ecomonic well-being by limiting trade.
Fascism
Governmental doctrine that relies on dictatorial rule and a totalitarian regime, in which the state maintains rigid control of the people through force and censorship.
Third Reich
Adolf Hitler's name for his regime meaning "the third empire".
Munich Conference
Meeting called by Hitler in 1938 to discuss the Czech problem, which led to the annexation of the Studentenland by Germany.
Genocide
Systematic extermination of a people.
Holocaust
Systematic elimination of European Jews and others by the Nazis.
United Nations
Organization of Nations to keep peace through collective security arrangements.
Cold War
Suspicion and hostility between the communist and Western democratic nations, waged primarily by political and economic means rather than with weapons.
Containment
Policy aimed at restricting the spread of communism.
Marshall Plan
Massive ecomonic assistance program to European countries by the United States.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance of twelve Western nations formed in 1949.
Tiananmen Square Massacre
Incident in which student staged a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square and ignored government orders to leave, resulting in the death of hundreds.
Domino Theory
Idea that if one country falls to communism, surrounding countries will soon follow.
Apartheid
Government policy of segregation and economic exploration in South Africa.
PLO
Palestine Liberation Organization; Palestinian guerilla organization led by Yasir Arafat.
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries created in 1960 to set oil prices and world oil production levels.
Détente
Era of improved Soviet-American relations.