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Divine Right of Kings

Belief that God chooses kings to rule nations.


Urban middle class, including merchants, manufacturers, and Professionals.


Military draft.

Coup d'Etat

Seizure of power by force; in French, a "stroke of state".

Factors of Production

Basic resources for industrialization, such as necessary land, capital, and labor.


Economic system in which individuals, rather than governments, control the factors of production.

Mass Production

System of producing large numbers of identical items.


Belief that governments should not interfere with the operations of businesses.


Political and economic system in which the government own the means of production.


Ambition of a powerful nation to dominate the political, economic, and cultural affairs of another nation or region.

Dependent Colonies

Colonies in which a few officals from one country (usually European) rule (non-European) people of another country.

Allied Powers

Alliance that included Great Britian, France, Russia (later the Soviet Union), the United States, and other countries during WWI and WWII.


Ideas, facts, or rumors spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause.

Communist Party

New name of the Russian Bolsheviks who dissolved the constitutional assembly in 1918.


Agreement signed by leaders of warring nations to stop fighting.

League of Nations

World organization formed after WWI to maintain peace.

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty between Germany and the Allied Powers at the end of WWI.

Economic Nationalism

Policy that a nation uses to try to imporve its ecomonic well-being by limiting trade.


Governmental doctrine that relies on dictatorial rule and a totalitarian regime, in which the state maintains rigid control of the people through force and censorship.

Third Reich

Adolf Hitler's name for his regime meaning "the third empire".

Munich Conference

Meeting called by Hitler in 1938 to discuss the Czech problem, which led to the annexation of the Studentenland by Germany.


Systematic extermination of a people.


Systematic elimination of European Jews and others by the Nazis.

United Nations

Organization of Nations to keep peace through collective security arrangements.

Cold War

Suspicion and hostility between the communist and Western democratic nations, waged primarily by political and economic means rather than with weapons.


Policy aimed at restricting the spread of communism.

Marshall Plan

Massive ecomonic assistance program to European countries by the United States.


North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance of twelve Western nations formed in 1949.

Tiananmen Square Massacre

Incident in which student staged a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square and ignored government orders to leave, resulting in the death of hundreds.

Domino Theory

Idea that if one country falls to communism, surrounding countries will soon follow.


Government policy of segregation and economic exploration in South Africa.


Palestine Liberation Organization; Palestinian guerilla organization led by Yasir Arafat.


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries created in 1960 to set oil prices and world oil production levels.


Era of improved Soviet-American relations.

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