56 terms

Chapter 16 The First Global Age: Europe, the Americas, and Africa

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Taino
the people who lived in the West Indies that Christopher Columbus discovered in 1492; lived in villages and grew corn, yams, and cotton they wove into cloth; friendly and generous toward the Spanish; enslaved by the Spanish and were forced to pan for gold and convert to Christianity
Conquistadors
conquerors
Cortes
one of the earliest conquistadors who landed on the Mexican coast in 1519 w/ 600 men, 16 horses, and few cannons; helped by Malinche
Malinche
a young Indian woman who served as Cortés translator and adviser; the Spanish called her Doña Marina; knew both Mayan and Aztec languages
Moctezuma
the Aztec ruler who questioned whether the leader of the Spanish was Quetzalcoatl and sent gifts of gold, silver, and precious stones to be safe; urged strangers not to continue to Tenochtitlán
Quetzalcoatl
the god-king who had long ago vowed to the Aztecs he would return from the east
Tenochitlan
the capital of the Aztecs ruled by Moctezuma and destroyed by Cortes and his Indian allies
Pizarro
arrived in Peru in 1532 right after Atahualpa won the throne; captured Atahualpa and demanded huge payment for his freedom; Incas paid and he killed A. anyway
Atahualpa
Incan ruler who was captured and killed by Pizarro
Reasons for Spanish Victory
1. Superior military technology- horses frightened them; muskets and cannons (weapons of "fire and thunder") terrorized them; metal helmets and armor protected Spanish from arrows/spears
2. Division and discontent among Indians- Aztecs and Incas defeated rival groups for their empires and the Spanish became allies with these rivals
3. Disease- killed most; survivors believed their gods weren't as strong as the gods of the conquistadors b/c they were immune to the sicknesses
4. Disasters marked end of world to Indians- destruction of Tenochtitlán signaled end of sun god's life; w/ their gods dead they said "let us die"
New Spain
Mexico
Viceroys
representatives who ruled in the king of Spain's name; appointed for each of the five provinces
Council of the Indies
set up to pass laws for the colonies as a part of Spain's goal of being determined to maintain strict control over its empires
Sugar Cane
introduced into the West Indies and became profitable resource by being refined into sugar, molasses, and rum; had to be grown on plantations
Plantations
large estates run by an owner or the owner's overseer
Encomiendas
the right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in a particular area; conquistadors used this to enslave N.A.'s under brutal conditions
Bartolome de las Casas
a bold priest who detailed the horrors that Spanish rule had brought to the NAs and begged the king to end it; urged colonists to import workers from Africa
New Laws of the Indies
passed in 1542 forbidding enslavement of NAs
Peons
NAs were forced to become these workers who were forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off a debt
Peninsulares
: top of colonial society, people born in Spain; filled highest positions in both colonial gov'ts and Catholic Church
Creoles
American-born descendants of Spanish settlers; owned most of the plantations, ranches, and mines
Mestizos
people of Native American and European descent
Mulattoes
people of African and European descent
Colonial Cities
centers of gov't, commerce, and European culture; also centers of intellectual and cultural life
Government Policy
Early 1700s, French forts, missions, and trading posts stretched from Quebec to Louisiana but remained smaller than 13E colonies
Louis XIV
the French king who set out to strengthen royal power and boost tax revenues by appointing officials to oversee justice and economic activities, sending more settlers and soldiers to NA, and paying for unmarried women to travel to NF to find husbands and build new communities; prohibited Protestants
Jamestown, VA
the place where the English built the first permanent colony in 1607
Plymouth, MA
where the Pilgrims landed in 1620 seeking religious freedom
Mayflower Compact
signed by the Pilgrims; it set out guidelines for governing their NA colony
Treaty of Paris
the peace treaty that ended the French and Indian War; France gave Canada and its lands east of the Mississippi River to Britain while the French regained the islands in the Caribbean and the slave-trading outposts in Africa; ensured British dominance in NA
Impact on Native Americans
settlers learned to grow corn, beans, squash, and tomatoes and to hunt and trap for forest animals from the N.A.'s; some colonists adapted Indian clothing of moccasins and leggings; trails by Indians became highways for settlers moving west; rivers (Mississippi) and mountains (Appalachians) across the US have Indian names
Middle Passage
part of a three-legged trade network that sent raw materials from the Americas to Europe, slaves from Africa to the Americas, and manufactured goods from Europe to Africa;
King Afonso
ruler of Kongo in west-central Africa; born with the name Nzinga Mbemba but was tutored by Portuguese missionaries who baptized him in 1491 and gave him his new Christian; tried to stop slave trade in Kongo but failed
The Almamy of Futa Toro
an African ruler who tried to stop the slave trade in his lands by passing a law in 1788 forbidding anyone to transport slaves through his land for sale abroad
Impact of the Slave Trade
the loss of countless numbers of Africans; some societies and small states disappeared; rise of new African states whose way of life depended on the slave trade
Rise of New States
Oyo, Bornu, Dahomey, Asante kingdom in place of present-day Ghana
The Asante Kingdom
ruled by Osei Tutu; followed a bureaucracy; had leading chiefs who served as council of advisers but were subject to the royal will; traded with Europeans on the cost exchanging gold and slaves for firearms
Osei Tutu
an able military leader who won control of the trading city of Kumasi and from there conquered neighboring lands making the Asante kingdom; claimed to rule by divine right
Usman dan Fodio
a Fulani scholar and preacher who denounced the corruption of the local Hausa rulers (Muslim in name only); called for social and religious reforms based on the Sharia; inspired Fulani herders and Hausa townspeople to rise up against their rulers
Shaka
leader of the Zulus, a powerful African group; built on the successes of earlier leaders who had begun to organize young fighters into permanent regiments
Zulus
held their own at first but their spears couldn't compete with the guns Boers had
Boers
Dutch farmers that settled around Cape Town; they enslaved the Khoisan herders who lived there and held to a Calvinist belief that they were the elect of God and looked on Africans as inferiors
The Columbian Exchange
the global exchange of goods from the Americas to Europe and vice versa that began with Columbus
Impact on population
Corn, potatoes, manioc, beans and tomatoes contributed to population increase from Europe to West Africa and to China
The Price Revolution
a time where there was an upsurge in prices
Inflation
the economic cycle that involves a rise in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available
Capitalism
the investment of money to make a profit
Entrepreneurs
enterprising merchants that organized, managed, and assumed the risks of doing business; hired workers and paid for raw materials, transport, and other costs of production
Harvard
first university in the 13 English colonies founded in 1636
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
entered a convent as a 16 year old after being refused admission to the University of Mexico b/c she was a girl; devoted herself to study and the writing of poetry and earned a reputation as one of the greatest lyric poets to ever write in the Spanish language
Brazilwood
used to produce a precious dye; exported and cut by early settlers
Samuel de Champlain
built the first permanent French settlement in Quebec in 1608
Representative assembly
each colony had one elected by propertied men; advised royal governor and made decisions on local issues
Missionaries
baptized N.A.'s; built mission churches in frontier regions and worked to turn new converts into loyal subjects of the Catholic king of Spain; emphasized superiority of European culture; introduced western clothing, the Spanish language, and new crafts (Franciscans and Jesuits)
Church leaders
often served as royal officials and helped to regulate the activities of Spanish settlers
Pilgrims
a band of English Puritans, a Protestant groups, who rejected the practices of the official Church of England; landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620 seeking religious freedom rather than commercial profit; signed Mayflower Compact