Excelsior U.S. History Unit 9 (Ch. 26)

STUDY
PLAY
William Jefferson Clinton
The 42nd President of the United States. The Governor of Arkansas who sought to bring the Democratic party to a more moderate place and help the US with the recession. Following an investigation and a Grand Jury testimonial, the House of Representatives voted to impeach Clinton, but in the Senate because of partisan politics, they overturned the vote and he remained President. During his Presidency, Clinton tried to increase trade with China.
H. Ross Perot
A Texas billionaire who ran as a third party candidate for President who believed that the federal budget deficit was the nation's largest problem.
Hillary Rodham Clinton
First Lady, a lawyer and child welfare advocate who was named as team leader for President Clinton's healthcare reform bill.
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement. Legislation which allowed free-trade with Mexico and Canada. Canada and America already had an agreement, but this superseded it.
Newt Gingrich
Republican Congressman who helped steer dissatisfaction with President Clinton into support for the Republican party by writing the Contract with America and became Speaker of the House.
Contract with America
Ten items Republicans promised to enact if they won control of Congress which included term limits, balanced budget, tax cuts, tougher crime laws and welfare reform.
Al Gore
Vice-President for Bill Clinton and the Democratic candidate for President in the 2000 election. In fact, even Al Gore conceded defeat on election night when TV networks called Florida going to George W Bush, and then they later changed their position.
George W. Bush
The 43th President of the United States, Governor of Texas and Republican who created tax cuts, the Department of Homeland Security, and sought federal reform for education and social security.
service sector
The part of the economy that provides services to consumers, such as teachesr, medical professionals, lawyers, store clerks, and waitstaff.
downsize
Trimming payrolls to streamline operations and increase profits. This was one reason why workers felt less secure in the 90's. This was also one trend of economics in the 1990's. Others were increases in service sector jobs but decreases in manufacturing jobs.
Bill Gates
The most successful entrepreneur who founded Microsoft and is considered the wealthiest man in the world.
NASDAQ
National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System. A technology-dominated stock index on Wall Street.
dotcom
A nickname for high-tech online businesses which expanded rapidly in the 1990s.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades (GATT)
The organization the the US joined which lowered trade barriers with other countries and established the WTO (World Trade Organization) to resolve disputes.
Information Superhighway
A network of communication devices linking people and institutions across the nation and the world
Internet
An international network linking computers and allowing almost instant transmittal of text, images and sound which really started to grow in use during the 90s.
Telecommute
The process of working out of your home instead of going to an office everyday.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
The Act passed by Congress that removed barriers that had previously prevented one type of communications company from starting up or buying another related one. This allowed for the creation of large conglomerates of movie, TV, and newspaper companies.
Genetic engineering
The artificial changing of the molecular biology of organisms' cells to alter the organism. The main goal is to be able to someday prevent inherited diseases.
Urban Flight
The process in which Americans left the cities and moved to the suburbs. This was done for several reasons, more space and security and having access to newer schools. This also led to higher taxes in the suburbs, more industry and declining economics in the cities.
Gentrification
The process by which people returned to the cities, purchased and renovated deteriorating urban property, oftentimes displacing lower income people.
Proposition 187
The California Initiative of 1994 that cut all education and non-emergency health benefits to illegal immigrants, which was declared unconstitutional and inspired political participation among Hispanic voters.
Entitlement Program
A governmental mechanism in which public funds are given to people who meet certain criteria. Social Security, welfare, food stamps, etc. are all examples of entitlement programs. The masses of aging Americans may make it difficult for continuance of the Social Security program.
Election of 2000
Between George W Bush and Al Gore. The votes were so close, that a recount was enacted in Florida (where the votes were the closest). The outcome took over a month to determine that George W Bush had won the election and showed us that every vote is important.
Government Shutdown
In 1995, President Clinton sent a budget to Congress, and because of partisan politics, the budget was not passed, and federal employees were put on furlough and not allowed to work for 27 days until the budget was passed.
Global Economy
The push towards trade of goods and services with all nations of the world. One result of this push is that now Americans must compete with other people in other countries for jobs instead of just with other Americans.
Agricultural Changes
Over the last half of the twentieth century, the family farm was slowly being replaced with corporate farms.