Final Exam Review
Exam 1 Questions
Terms in this set (40)
After loosing a Little League baseball game between the Rockets and the Tigers, what is the coach of the losing team likely to say?
"Boy, those Tigers have never played better than they did today."
What did Liberman, Samuels, and Ross (2004) learn from their study where participants played either the Wall Street Game or the Community Game?
The context students are faced with can influence whether they will be competitive or cooperative over and above their natural tendencies to be either competitive or cooperative
A behaviorist would be most likely to focus on the role of ________________ in influencing behavior
reward and punishment
Considering the research on reasons-generated attitude change, in which case would you expect the greatest consistency between the person's attitude and their future behavior?
Alicia, who sits and daydreams about the love she feels for T.J.
According to recent research, why does culture influence our tendency to make internal versus external attributions?
Cultures vary in the extent to which interdependence and conformity are valued
If a researcher were to observe women exercising and then men exercising and compare these groups, why would this not be considered an experiment?
The experimenter is not manipulating anything
How did Latane and Darley (1968) vary the number of bystanders in their experimental study of the effects of the number of witnesses exposed to an emergency?
They randomly assigned participants to one of three conditions: several witnesses, few witnesses, or one witness
Which of these discoveries was not associated with split-brain research?
Severing the corpus callousm causes so many problems that patients with split brains have nearly impossible day-to-day lives
When you conduct your own research, what size p-value indicates that your research has been successful?
Small, such as less than 5%
Darwin wrote that emotional expressions in humans are derived from
Habits or reflexes that were useful in the evolutionary or individual past
Students in the United States seldom applaud after a lecture, whereas students in Europe often applaud or rap their knuckles on their desks. This cultural difference reflects the power of _____________ to influence nonverbal communication
Imagine traveling to a country where you don't speak the native language. You just had a great meal. You don't want to be misunderstood, so how can you communicated to your host that the meal was great and you are happy?
Which of the following threatens the internal validity of an experiment?
Failing to assign participants randomly to conditions
According to the authors of your text, extrinsic rewards are most likely to diminish intrinsic motivation when
Intrinsic motivation was initially high
When there are no objective criteria to measure achievement, people often rely on ______________ to evaluate how well they performed
Recall that Latane and Darley observed the number of participants in each condition who left their cubicles to help the alleged victim of a seizure. In their experiment, ________________ was the independent variable and _________________ was the dependent variable
the number of other participants present; the number of participants who tried to help
Ekman and Friesen (1971) collected convincing evidence that facial expressions are universal. In their research, they studied
a preliterate tribe in an isolated part of New Guinea
You are conducting an experiment where each participant in your study will be exposed to all of the conditions. Which of these experimental designs does this technique describe?
within subjects design
Simone runs simply because it gives her pleasure to exercise outside and to leave her daily worries behind as she works up a sweat. In this instance, Simone is __________ to run
On a visit to Australia, then-president George H.W. Bush offended the Australians when he flashed the two-fingered "peace sign" to a crowd. This is an example of how the use of _____________, which vary from culture to culture, may lead to confusion or conflict if used outside the user's culture.
When a psychologist discusses individual differences, she is discussing
aspects of personality that make people differ from one another
It's Halloween, but you don't want to be running back and forth to answer the door. To avoid andy "tricks", you decide to leave a large container of candy on the porch. You've just read about self-awareness theory and you have a hunch about how to keep greedy trick-or-treaters from taking more than their fair share of the candy. Self-awareness theory would suggest you should
place a large mirror behind the candy, so that children can see themselves as they approach
Earl wants to understand his self-concept better, so he sits quietly by himself and thinks about who he is and what is values and attitudes are. What is Earl engaging in?
Nalini Ambady's research on Thin Slices found that all students needed to accurately predict the ratings a class would give on a professor's end-of-the semester teaching evaluation was a __________ video of their teaching performance
Which of the following facial expressions is not a member of Ekman's "Big 6"?
In the intro to Ch 1, you read about a number of social phenomena: a young man broadcast his suicide live online; a father and son disagreed on the attractiveness of the same fraternity; and more than 800 people committed mass suicide in Jonestown, Guyana. What do these examples have in common? They
reveal the power of social infulence
If you are using the Misattribution of Arousal principle to plan a first date and you really want your partner to be attracted to you, which of the following activities would you choose?
Ride the roller coaster at an amusement park
According to information from the registrar's office, Lee has discovered that people who score higher on the SAT tend to have a higher GPA in their first year of college. Lee has used a(n) ___________ research method
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that have examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central characters's facial expression. What implications does this study have for the idea of analytical and holistic thinking styles?
It implies that holistic thinking leads people to more carefully consider social context
Social Psych seeks to "understand and explain how the thoughts, feelings, and _________________ of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other human beings" (Allport, 1985)
Sheila fancies herself an outgoing extrovert. She smiles a lot and gestures dramatically as she talks. This example best illustrates the use of nonverbal behavior to
communicate personality traits
Which research method allows the researcher to focus on causality?
Schachter and Singer's (1962) experiment in which participants were injected with epinephrine- allegedly as a part of a study of the effects of a vitamin compound on vision- is one of the most famous studies in social psych because the experiment showed that
emotions can be the consequences of self-perception processes
one application of Ross's idea of naive realism is to assist the negotiations between long time adversaries: Palestinians and Israelis. How would understanding naive realism potentially help these parties negotiate more successfully?
both sides would understand that their own perceptions are biased and try to be more objective
what level of analysis do social psychologists use to study social influence on humans?
The individual within a setting or context
Patricia and John have each independently recorded the number of times the word "right" and "responsibility" appeared in a civics textbook. They compared their counts and found that, of the thousands of references to rights and responsibilities, they only disagreed by two occurrences. This example illustrates high
Experimenters who value external validity primarily want their findings to generalize across ____________ and _________________
if you are driving somewhere and the other driver cuts you off, your natural inclination would be to think that the other driver is a jerk. Our tendency to explain people's actions in terms of personality traits and underestimate the impact of social influence is known as
The Fundamental Attribution Error
The development of our sense of self is partly influenced by the culture in which we grow up. For example, In Western cultures, people tend to have an ________________ view of the self, whereas in non-Western cultures, people tend to have an ______________ view of the self
The first time you met someone, you thought they were rude. As a result, you behaved in a less friendly manner than you might have otherwise. The other person now thinks that you are not very friendly and in turn continues to behave in what you view as a rude manner. This pattern is an example of