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105 terms

Bio Chinnery Test 4 - 5/1/2013

The degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, bio or the entire planet. In other words, how many organisms there are on the globe
changing anything about a natural species (or substance)
genetic engineering
changing the genetic material of an organism
transgenic organisms (genetically modified organisms)
the result of genetic engineering
benefits of biodiversity
animals, medicine, agriculture, Forensic Science
ways in which biodiversity can change
habitat loss, climate change, invasive species, other unknown threats
ethical issues of biotechnology
cloning humans, embryonic stem cells, designer babies, "super weeds"
5 characteristics that define an animal
multicellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotic, don't have cell walls, have structural proteins for support, nervous and muscle tissues, sexual reproduction, Hox genes
5 characteristics that define plant
multicellular, autotrophic, eukaryotes, have cell walls for support, no nervous or muscle tissue, sexual asexual, Hox genes
4 constraints to moving onto land from water
surface area vs. volume, gravity, aridity, salinity
adaptation to surface area vs. volume constraint
transport systems in plants and animals that carry nutrients to cells in the body and carry waste away from cells in the body
transport proteins
proteins that are in cell membranes and transport certain substances used to make transport systems more efficient
extracellular matrix
interstitial fluid used to help transport systems be more efficient
adaptations to gravity constraint
structural support (plants- cellulose,carbohydrate and animals- collagen, protein)
adaptation to aridity constraint
water conservation in plants and animals and change in fertility (ex: amniotic egg)
adaptation to salinity constraint
change in physiology
advantages for plants moving onto land
bright sun( unfiltered by water or algae), abundance of co2 in the atmosphere, nutrient rich soil, few pathogens or herbivores at first
advantages for animals moving onto land
no competition, relatively unlimited resources, warm and moist climate
four characteristics of a chordate
notochord, dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, muscular postnatal tail
defining characteristic of chordates
All Inclusive
defining characteristic of craniates
head, with brain and sensory organs, two groups of Hox genes, neural crest cells, blood, two-chambered heart
defining characteristic of vertebrates
Distinguishing characters:Vertebral column, Closed circulatory system, Braincase (cranium), Eyes, ears, nose, Axial endoskeleton, Appendicular skeleton
defining characteristic of gnathostomes
Jaws, Beginnings of ossification, More duplication of Hox genes, Lateral line system
defining characteristic of osteichthyans
completely ossified skeleton, lungs or lung derivatives, Bony fishes - ray-finned, lobe-finned, lungfishes
defining characteristics of lobe fins
lobed fins
defining characteristics of tetrapods
limbs, feet with digits, no gills
defining characteristic of aminotes
amniotic egg, some with shells, extraembryonic membranes, waterproof skin, greater use of rib cage in breathing
characteristics of mammals
hair, endothermic, four chambered hearts, muscular diaphragm, inner ear bones, mammary glands
epithelial tissues
tissue in animals: surface tissues, used for absorption and secretion
connective tissues
tissues in animals: cells in a matrix, used for support
nervous tissues
tissues in animals: cells are neurons, used or conveying messages
advantages of having internal exchange systems
can grow, can control the inner environment, can have a lot more surface area, can do other things with the outside
the study of flow of energy through an organism
metabolic rate
the sum of all the energy requiring biochemical reactions occurring over a given time interval
heat generated by metabolism with a body temperature remaining constant to sustain life. requires a lot of energy and can insure long and intense activity
heat gathered from environment, body temperature can very, not much energy needed, and incapable of intense activity over time
what are the 4 ways animals can gain or lose heat?
radiation, evaporation, conduction, convection
heat is produced and released by every object and can be absorbed by another object
transfer of heat due to movement of air or liquid pas a surface
transfer of heat between two objects in direct contact
evaporative cooling
removal of heat from a liquid as some of its molecules turn to gas (to stay cool)
blood vessels increase in diameter in order to increase blood flow (to cool down)
blood vessels narrow and the muscular wall of the vessel contracts (to stay warm)
countercurrent heat exchange
heat from blood in the arteries supplying the body is transferred to blood in the veins close to those arteries that is returning to the heart (to stay warm)
the dynamic constancy of the internal environment
negative feedback
a mechanism for controlling the change in our bodies by slowing down or damping the fluctuations in a process. in response to a change in conditions it will bring back the conditions to a set point
positive feedback
bodies racing in the same direction of a stimulus. a mechanism for speeding up or amplifying a process
4 ways animals can thermoregulate
control rate of heat exchange, evaporative cooling, behavior, change in metabolic rate
balancing heat loss or gain
levels of organization of life
chemical (molecular) cell tissue organ, organ system, organism
skin - protection, waterproofing
structural support, framework, protection
control processes
control hormones
immune system
protect from invaders
circulatory system
cleans fluids in body
breathing, ATP production
absorption of nutrients
rids waste
baby making
What are the 2 kinds of amniotes?
reptiles and mammals
What are the 3 kinds of tetrapods?
amphibians, lobefin fish, and reptiles
Characteristics of primates
grasping appendages, relatively large brains and short jaws, nails on fingers instead of claws, forward-facing eyes
complex social behavior, well-developed parental care
6 major extinction events:
Permian- killed off most of life; worst one
Cretaceous- meteorite killed off 75% of life
Now - can see the things going extinct now, and can look at the fossil record to know what went extinct in the past
plant cladogram with the four groups and the four major derived
mosses - moved onto land; alternation of generations
ferns - vascular tissue reduced; independent gametophyte
conifers - seeds; pollen; microscopic gametophyte
flowering plants - flowers; fruit
pathway of blood from the right ventricle back to the right ventricle
1) right ventricle 2) pulmonary artery 3) capillaries of left lung 4) pulmonary vein 5) to left atrium 6) to left ventricle 7) aorta 8) capillaries of forelimbs and head 9) cap. of abdominal organs and hind limbs 10) interior vena cava 11) posterior vena cava 12) right atrium 13) STRATS ALL OVA
How do birds breathe?
~unidirectional flow: gases are completely exchanges
~no pause in gas flow
~continuous flow of gasses through other sacs and then lungs (always have
fresh air in their lungs unlike us)
innate behavior
are those you develop on your own, which do not need to be taught or learned.
learned behavior
- a behavior that was observed by an individual that they find it to be beneficial to them in some way. There's a motivating factor behind it
whereby a young animal follow the characteristics of his/her mother after hatching.It can be filialimprinting or followiing a future mating partner.
proximate cause
is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result.
ultimate cause
which is usually thought of as the "real" reason something occurred.
Animal cognition
we look at intention i.e. tool usage, and self recognition
Kin selection
the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives
how closely related to someone you are. you are 100% related to yourself and 50% of each of your parents (refer to lecture slide for full table)
reciprocal altruism
is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time.
positive pressure breathing
opens its mouth catches air in its mouth,
and swallows it forcing it down into lungs
negative pressure breathing
diaphragm moves down and increases space
so air is sucked in, then we push it out
apical dominance
the phenomenon whereby the main central stem of the plant is dominant over other side stems; on a branch the main stem of the branch is further dominant over its own side branchlets.
signals do plants respond to and how they respond
photomorphogenisis - how lights affects the final form of a plant
phototropism - growth in repsonse to light (plants cells will grow towards the light source, oxin is released on dark side of stem which makes these cells get bigger)
gravitrophism - growth in response to gravity (both positive and negative gravitropism because of stems and roots)
change in growth in a plant due to an external signal
how an external signal affects the form or structure of a plant
similarities between the immune systems of plants and that of animals
external physical barrier, recognition of pathogen molecules, antibody production, systemic acquired resiistance
both subjects benefit
subject A willingly accepts cost to benefit B
Subject A benefits letting B endure costs
Subject A causes costs for Subject B without benefit
movement plants move or grow in response to touch or contact stimuli
turning or growth movement by plants or fungus in response to gravity
growth of organisms in response to light
Change in growth in a plant due to an external signal
how an external signal affects the form or structure of a plant
prop roots
props up plants that are top heavy
Buttress roots
helps support the tree
Strangling aerial roots
are kind of like parasites. They burrow into other trees to get the nutrients that they need
when roots stick up in the air, occur in plants in watery areas where water has less oxygen than in the air
like onions, stem right above the root
horizontal stems that grow along the ground, create new baby plants asexualy
various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store nutrients
like Stolons but live just under surface
vines used to anchor themselves onto surfaces
Like those on cacti
a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower