Create an account
The degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, bio or the entire planet. In other words, how many organisms there are on the globe
ways in which biodiversity can change
habitat loss, climate change, invasive species, other unknown threats
ethical issues of biotechnology
cloning humans, embryonic stem cells, designer babies, "super weeds"
5 characteristics that define an animal
multicellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotic, don't have cell walls, have structural proteins for support, nervous and muscle tissues, sexual reproduction, Hox genes
5 characteristics that define plant
multicellular, autotrophic, eukaryotes, have cell walls for support, no nervous or muscle tissue, sexual asexual, Hox genes
adaptation to surface area vs. volume constraint
transport systems in plants and animals that carry nutrients to cells in the body and carry waste away from cells in the body
proteins that are in cell membranes and transport certain substances used to make transport systems more efficient
adaptations to gravity constraint
structural support (plants- cellulose,carbohydrate and animals- collagen, protein)
adaptation to aridity constraint
water conservation in plants and animals and change in fertility (ex: amniotic egg)
advantages for plants moving onto land
bright sun( unfiltered by water or algae), abundance of co2 in the atmosphere, nutrient rich soil, few pathogens or herbivores at first
advantages for animals moving onto land
no competition, relatively unlimited resources, warm and moist climate
four characteristics of a chordate
notochord, dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, muscular postnatal tail
defining characteristic of craniates
head, with brain and sensory organs, two groups of Hox genes, neural crest cells, blood, two-chambered heart
defining characteristic of vertebrates
Distinguishing characters:Vertebral column, Closed circulatory system, Braincase (cranium), Eyes, ears, nose, Axial endoskeleton, Appendicular skeleton
defining characteristic of gnathostomes
Jaws, Beginnings of ossification, More duplication of Hox genes, Lateral line system
defining characteristic of osteichthyans
completely ossified skeleton, lungs or lung derivatives, Bony fishes - ray-finned, lobe-finned, lungfishes
defining characteristic of aminotes
amniotic egg, some with shells, extraembryonic membranes, waterproof skin, greater use of rib cage in breathing
characteristics of mammals
hair, endothermic, four chambered hearts, muscular diaphragm, inner ear bones, mammary glands
advantages of having internal exchange systems
can grow, can control the inner environment, can have a lot more surface area, can do other things with the outside
the sum of all the energy requiring biochemical reactions occurring over a given time interval
heat generated by metabolism with a body temperature remaining constant to sustain life. requires a lot of energy and can insure long and intense activity
heat gathered from environment, body temperature can very, not much energy needed, and incapable of intense activity over time
removal of heat from a liquid as some of its molecules turn to gas (to stay cool)
countercurrent heat exchange
heat from blood in the arteries supplying the body is transferred to blood in the veins close to those arteries that is returning to the heart (to stay warm)
a mechanism for controlling the change in our bodies by slowing down or damping the fluctuations in a process. in response to a change in conditions it will bring back the conditions to a set point
bodies racing in the same direction of a stimulus. a mechanism for speeding up or amplifying a process
4 ways animals can thermoregulate
control rate of heat exchange, evaporative cooling, behavior, change in metabolic rate
Characteristics of primates
grasping appendages, relatively large brains and short jaws, nails on fingers instead of claws, forward-facing eyes
complex social behavior, well-developed parental care
6 major extinction events:
Permian- killed off most of life; worst one
Cretaceous- meteorite killed off 75% of life
Now - can see the things going extinct now, and can look at the fossil record to know what went extinct in the past
plant cladogram with the four groups and the four major derived
mosses - moved onto land; alternation of generations
ferns - vascular tissue reduced; independent gametophyte
conifers - seeds; pollen; microscopic gametophyte
flowering plants - flowers; fruit
pathway of blood from the right ventricle back to the right ventricle
1) right ventricle 2) pulmonary artery 3) capillaries of left lung 4) pulmonary vein 5) to left atrium 6) to left ventricle 7) aorta 8) capillaries of forelimbs and head 9) cap. of abdominal organs and hind limbs 10) interior vena cava 11) posterior vena cava 12) right atrium 13) STRATS ALL OVA
How do birds breathe?
~unidirectional flow: gases are completely exchanges
~no pause in gas flow
~continuous flow of gasses through other sacs and then lungs (always have
fresh air in their lungs unlike us)
- a behavior that was observed by an individual that they find it to be beneficial to them in some way. There's a motivating factor behind it
whereby a young animal follow the characteristics of his/her mother after hatching.It can be filialimprinting or followiing a future mating partner.
is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result.
the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives
how closely related to someone you are. you are 100% related to yourself and 50% of each of your parents (refer to lecture slide for full table)
is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time.
positive pressure breathing
opens its mouth catches air in its mouth,
and swallows it forcing it down into lungs
negative pressure breathing
diaphragm moves down and increases space
so air is sucked in, then we push it out
the phenomenon whereby the main central stem of the plant is dominant over other side stems; on a branch the main stem of the branch is further dominant over its own side branchlets.
signals do plants respond to and how they respond
photomorphogenisis - how lights affects the final form of a plant
phototropism - growth in repsonse to light (plants cells will grow towards the light source, oxin is released on dark side of stem which makes these cells get bigger)
gravitrophism - growth in response to gravity (both positive and negative gravitropism because of stems and roots)
similarities between the immune systems of plants and that of animals
external physical barrier, recognition of pathogen molecules, antibody production, systemic acquired resiistance
Strangling aerial roots
are kind of like parasites. They burrow into other trees to get the nutrients that they need
when roots stick up in the air, occur in plants in watery areas where water has less oxygen than in the air
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together