tissue in animals: surface tissues, used for absorption and secretion
tissues in animals: cells in a matrix, used for support
tissues in animals: cells are neurons, used or conveying messages
advantages of having internal exchange systems
can grow, can control the inner environment, can have a lot more surface area, can do other things with the outside
the study of flow of energy through an organism
the sum of all the energy requiring biochemical reactions occurring over a given time interval
heat generated by metabolism with a body temperature remaining constant to sustain life. requires a lot of energy and can insure long and intense activity
heat gathered from environment, body temperature can very, not much energy needed, and incapable of intense activity over time
what are the 4 ways animals can gain or lose heat?
radiation, evaporation, conduction, convection
heat is produced and released by every object and can be absorbed by another object
transfer of heat due to movement of air or liquid pas a surface
transfer of heat between two objects in direct contact
removal of heat from a liquid as some of its molecules turn to gas (to stay cool)
blood vessels increase in diameter in order to increase blood flow (to cool down)
blood vessels narrow and the muscular wall of the vessel contracts (to stay warm)
countercurrent heat exchange
heat from blood in the arteries supplying the body is transferred to blood in the veins close to those arteries that is returning to the heart (to stay warm)
the dynamic constancy of the internal environment
a mechanism for controlling the change in our bodies by slowing down or damping the fluctuations in a process. in response to a change in conditions it will bring back the conditions to a set point
bodies racing in the same direction of a stimulus. a mechanism for speeding up or amplifying a process
4 ways animals can thermoregulate
control rate of heat exchange, evaporative cooling, behavior, change in metabolic rate
balancing heat loss or gain
levels of organization of life
chemical (molecular) cell tissue organ, organ system, organism
skin - protection, waterproofing
structural support, framework, protection
protect from invaders
cleans fluids in body
breathing, ATP production
absorption of nutrients
What are the 2 kinds of amniotes?
reptiles and mammals
What are the 3 kinds of tetrapods?
amphibians, lobefin fish, and reptiles
Characteristics of primates
grasping appendages, relatively large brains and short jaws, nails on fingers instead of claws, forward-facing eyes complex social behavior, well-developed parental care
6 major extinction events:
Ordovician Devonian Permian- killed off most of life; worst one Triassic Cretaceous- meteorite killed off 75% of life Now - can see the things going extinct now, and can look at the fossil record to know what went extinct in the past
plant cladogram with the four groups and the four major derived characters
mosses - moved onto land; alternation of generations ferns - vascular tissue reduced; independent gametophyte conifers - seeds; pollen; microscopic gametophyte flowering plants - flowers; fruit
pathway of blood from the right ventricle back to the right ventricle
1) right ventricle 2) pulmonary artery 3) capillaries of left lung 4) pulmonary vein 5) to left atrium 6) to left ventricle 7) aorta 8) capillaries of forelimbs and head 9) cap. of abdominal organs and hind limbs 10) interior vena cava 11) posterior vena cava 12) right atrium 13) STRATS ALL OVA
How do birds breathe?
~unidirectional flow: gases are completely exchanges ~no pause in gas flow ~continuous flow of gasses through other sacs and then lungs (always have fresh air in their lungs unlike us)
are those you develop on your own, which do not need to be taught or learned.
- a behavior that was observed by an individual that they find it to be beneficial to them in some way. There's a motivating factor behind it
whereby a young animal follow the characteristics of his/her mother after hatching.It can be filialimprinting or followiing a future mating partner.
is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result.
which is usually thought of as the "real" reason something occurred.
we look at intention i.e. tool usage, and self recognition
the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives
how closely related to someone you are. you are 100% related to yourself and 50% of each of your parents (refer to lecture slide for full table)
is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time.
positive pressure breathing
opens its mouth catches air in its mouth, and swallows it forcing it down into lungs
negative pressure breathing
diaphragm moves down and increases space so air is sucked in, then we push it out
the phenomenon whereby the main central stem of the plant is dominant over other side stems; on a branch the main stem of the branch is further dominant over its own side branchlets.
signals do plants respond to and how they respond
photomorphogenisis - how lights affects the final form of a plant phototropism - growth in repsonse to light (plants cells will grow towards the light source, oxin is released on dark side of stem which makes these cells get bigger) gravitrophism - growth in response to gravity (both positive and negative gravitropism because of stems and roots)
change in growth in a plant due to an external signal
how an external signal affects the form or structure of a plant
similarities between the immune systems of plants and that of animals