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The degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, bio or the entire planet. In other words, how many organisms there are on the globe


changing anything about a natural species (or substance)

genetic engineering

changing the genetic material of an organism

transgenic organisms (genetically modified organisms)

the result of genetic engineering

benefits of biodiversity

animals, medicine, agriculture, Forensic Science

ways in which biodiversity can change

habitat loss, climate change, invasive species, other unknown threats

ethical issues of biotechnology

cloning humans, embryonic stem cells, designer babies, "super weeds"

5 characteristics that define an animal

multicellular, heterotrophic, eukaryotic, don't have cell walls, have structural proteins for support, nervous and muscle tissues, sexual reproduction, Hox genes

5 characteristics that define plant

multicellular, autotrophic, eukaryotes, have cell walls for support, no nervous or muscle tissue, sexual asexual, Hox genes

4 constraints to moving onto land from water

surface area vs. volume, gravity, aridity, salinity

adaptation to surface area vs. volume constraint

transport systems in plants and animals that carry nutrients to cells in the body and carry waste away from cells in the body

transport proteins

proteins that are in cell membranes and transport certain substances used to make transport systems more efficient

extracellular matrix

interstitial fluid used to help transport systems be more efficient

adaptations to gravity constraint

structural support (plants- cellulose,carbohydrate and animals- collagen, protein)

adaptation to aridity constraint

water conservation in plants and animals and change in fertility (ex: amniotic egg)

adaptation to salinity constraint

change in physiology

advantages for plants moving onto land

bright sun( unfiltered by water or algae), abundance of co2 in the atmosphere, nutrient rich soil, few pathogens or herbivores at first

advantages for animals moving onto land

no competition, relatively unlimited resources, warm and moist climate

four characteristics of a chordate

notochord, dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, muscular postnatal tail

defining characteristic of chordates

All Inclusive

defining characteristic of craniates

head, with brain and sensory organs, two groups of Hox genes, neural crest cells, blood, two-chambered heart

defining characteristic of vertebrates

Distinguishing characters:Vertebral column, Closed circulatory system, Braincase (cranium), Eyes, ears, nose, Axial endoskeleton, Appendicular skeleton

defining characteristic of gnathostomes

Jaws, Beginnings of ossification, More duplication of Hox genes, Lateral line system

defining characteristic of osteichthyans

completely ossified skeleton, lungs or lung derivatives, Bony fishes - ray-finned, lobe-finned, lungfishes

defining characteristics of lobe fins

lobed fins

defining characteristics of tetrapods

limbs, feet with digits, no gills

defining characteristic of aminotes

amniotic egg, some with shells, extraembryonic membranes, waterproof skin, greater use of rib cage in breathing

characteristics of mammals

hair, endothermic, four chambered hearts, muscular diaphragm, inner ear bones, mammary glands

epithelial tissues

tissue in animals: surface tissues, used for absorption and secretion

connective tissues

tissues in animals: cells in a matrix, used for support

nervous tissues

tissues in animals: cells are neurons, used or conveying messages

advantages of having internal exchange systems

can grow, can control the inner environment, can have a lot more surface area, can do other things with the outside


the study of flow of energy through an organism

metabolic rate

the sum of all the energy requiring biochemical reactions occurring over a given time interval


heat generated by metabolism with a body temperature remaining constant to sustain life. requires a lot of energy and can insure long and intense activity


heat gathered from environment, body temperature can very, not much energy needed, and incapable of intense activity over time

what are the 4 ways animals can gain or lose heat?

radiation, evaporation, conduction, convection


heat is produced and released by every object and can be absorbed by another object


transfer of heat due to movement of air or liquid pas a surface


transfer of heat between two objects in direct contact

evaporative cooling

removal of heat from a liquid as some of its molecules turn to gas (to stay cool)


blood vessels increase in diameter in order to increase blood flow (to cool down)


blood vessels narrow and the muscular wall of the vessel contracts (to stay warm)

countercurrent heat exchange

heat from blood in the arteries supplying the body is transferred to blood in the veins close to those arteries that is returning to the heart (to stay warm)


the dynamic constancy of the internal environment

negative feedback

a mechanism for controlling the change in our bodies by slowing down or damping the fluctuations in a process. in response to a change in conditions it will bring back the conditions to a set point

positive feedback

bodies racing in the same direction of a stimulus. a mechanism for speeding up or amplifying a process

4 ways animals can thermoregulate

control rate of heat exchange, evaporative cooling, behavior, change in metabolic rate


balancing heat loss or gain

levels of organization of life

chemical (molecular) cell tissue organ, organ system, organism


skin - protection, waterproofing


structural support, framework, protection




control processes


control hormones

immune system

protect from invaders


circulatory system


cleans fluids in body


breathing, ATP production


absorption of nutrients


rids waste


baby making

What are the 2 kinds of amniotes?

reptiles and mammals

What are the 3 kinds of tetrapods?

amphibians, lobefin fish, and reptiles

Characteristics of primates

grasping appendages, relatively large brains and short jaws, nails on fingers instead of claws, forward-facing eyes
complex social behavior, well-developed parental care

6 major extinction events:

Permian- killed off most of life; worst one
Cretaceous- meteorite killed off 75% of life
Now - can see the things going extinct now, and can look at the fossil record to know what went extinct in the past

plant cladogram with the four groups and the four major derived

mosses - moved onto land; alternation of generations
ferns - vascular tissue reduced; independent gametophyte
conifers - seeds; pollen; microscopic gametophyte
flowering plants - flowers; fruit

pathway of blood from the right ventricle back to the right ventricle

1) right ventricle 2) pulmonary artery 3) capillaries of left lung 4) pulmonary vein 5) to left atrium 6) to left ventricle 7) aorta 8) capillaries of forelimbs and head 9) cap. of abdominal organs and hind limbs 10) interior vena cava 11) posterior vena cava 12) right atrium 13) STRATS ALL OVA

How do birds breathe?

~unidirectional flow: gases are completely exchanges
~no pause in gas flow
~continuous flow of gasses through other sacs and then lungs (always have
fresh air in their lungs unlike us)

innate behavior

are those you develop on your own, which do not need to be taught or learned.

learned behavior

- a behavior that was observed by an individual that they find it to be beneficial to them in some way. There's a motivating factor behind it


whereby a young animal follow the characteristics of his/her mother after hatching.It can be filialimprinting or followiing a future mating partner.

proximate cause

is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result.

ultimate cause

which is usually thought of as the "real" reason something occurred.

Animal cognition

we look at intention i.e. tool usage, and self recognition

Kin selection

the evolutionary strategy that favours the reproductive success of an organism's relatives


how closely related to someone you are. you are 100% related to yourself and 50% of each of your parents (refer to lecture slide for full table)

reciprocal altruism

is a behaviour whereby an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, with the expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time.

positive pressure breathing

opens its mouth catches air in its mouth,
and swallows it forcing it down into lungs

negative pressure breathing

diaphragm moves down and increases space
so air is sucked in, then we push it out

apical dominance

the phenomenon whereby the main central stem of the plant is dominant over other side stems; on a branch the main stem of the branch is further dominant over its own side branchlets.

signals do plants respond to and how they respond

photomorphogenisis - how lights affects the final form of a plant
phototropism - growth in repsonse to light (plants cells will grow towards the light source, oxin is released on dark side of stem which makes these cells get bigger)
gravitrophism - growth in response to gravity (both positive and negative gravitropism because of stems and roots)


change in growth in a plant due to an external signal


how an external signal affects the form or structure of a plant

similarities between the immune systems of plants and that of animals

external physical barrier, recognition of pathogen molecules, antibody production, systemic acquired resiistance


both subjects benefit


subject A willingly accepts cost to benefit B


Subject A benefits letting B endure costs


Subject A causes costs for Subject B without benefit


movement plants move or grow in response to touch or contact stimuli


turning or growth movement by plants or fungus in response to gravity


growth of organisms in response to light


Change in growth in a plant due to an external signal


how an external signal affects the form or structure of a plant

prop roots

props up plants that are top heavy

Buttress roots

helps support the tree

Strangling aerial roots

are kind of like parasites. They burrow into other trees to get the nutrients that they need


when roots stick up in the air, occur in plants in watery areas where water has less oxygen than in the air


like onions, stem right above the root


horizontal stems that grow along the ground, create new baby plants asexualy


various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store nutrients


like Stolons but live just under surface


vines used to anchor themselves onto surfaces


Like those on cacti


a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower

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