78 terms

World History Chapter 7

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Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
Two of the earliest leading cities in India
Aryans
A warlike people which migrated into the Indus Valley and subdued the non-Aryan people of northwest India
Sanskrit
Language established in India by the Aryans
Vedas
A collection of religious literature which preserved the early traditions and religious beliefs of the Indians
joint family
the extended family which included the children, grandchildren, wives, and close blood relatives of a common ancestor which was the most important social units in India
castes
The social groups in India which determined where they lived, their profession, what they wore, and what and with whom they could eat, and whom they could marry
Brahmans
The priest caste
Sudras
The servant/serf caste
Hinduism
Religion native to India which incorporates the beliefs and customs of many different religions
Upanishads
A collection of philosophical essays elaborating on the teaching of the Vedas
Brahman
The god the Hindus believe in
world soul
Another name for the impersonal god Brahman
wheel of life
The cycle of rebirths the Hindus believe in
Buddhism
Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, it was another religion which originated in India
Four Noble Truths
The central teachings of Buddhism
Nirvana
The state of absolute peace and happiness which Buddhists believe they will enter after the free themselves from their selfish cravings
Siddhartha Gautama
The founder of Buddhism
Maurya
Conquered the disorganized and weak kingdoms in the north and created the first strong empire of India
Asoka
The most famous of the Mauryan rulers who extended the Mauryan Empire to include all but the southern tip of India
stupas
Buddhist shrines
Gupta
Empire which followed the Mauryan and which led India through its greatest era of prosperity and achievement
Kalidasa
The foremost India poet and dramatist during the Gupta Empire whose plays have earned him the title "The Indian Shakespeare
White Huns
Repeatedly attacked the Gupta Empire and caused it to collapse
Middle Kingdom
In ancient days the Chinese name their land the ______ because they believed China to be the center of the earth
Huang He and Yangtze
Two major rivers of China
ancestor worship
Cult which became the leading religion in China
Confucius
"the Master" according to the Chinese; founded Confucianism
Confucianism
Emphasized the importance of certain relationships
Lao-tzu
Founder of Taoism
Taoism
Teaches that man can achieve harmony with nature by ceasing to strive after power, wealth, and learning
Shang
One of the earliest known Chinese dynasties; rulers united much of northern China;
Chou
Dynasty which was the "Classical" or "formative" age of Chinese history; much of China's culture became established during this dynasty
Ch'in
Dynasty founded by Shih Huang Ti; gives China its name; Great Wall constructed; people revolted, ending this dynasty
Han
Most popular dynasty; most famous ruler was Wu Ti who drove back the Huns and extended China's territory; established the Pax Sinica; Silk Road established
T'ang
Dynasty which restored unity and prosperity in China; golden age that produced a stable government, expanding empire, increased trade, contact with other civilizations, advances in learning, and magnificent works of arts and literature; one of the finest periods of Chines poetry
Li Po
Popular and prolific poet during T'ang dynasty who wrote thousands of poems expressing emotional and sentimental themes
Sung
Comparatively weak dynasty; northern portions of China fell under barbarian control; Chinese culture flourished
Clan
A group of families claiming descent from a common ancestor; the basic unit of social organization in Japan
Honshu
The main Japanese island
Yamato
Clan which rose to power and unified the Japanese state; first to claim descent from Jimmu Tenno
Jimmu Tenno
The first emperor of Japan who, according to legend, was a direct descendant of the sun goddess
Japan
Country which has only one imperial family in its entire history
Shintoism
A form of nature worship that attributes deity to anything in nature that is awe-inspiring or extraordinary and stressed the supremacy of the sun goddess and the divine descent of the emperor
Buddhism and the written language
Two important vehicles that transmitted Chinese culture to Japan
Shotoku
Prince of Japan who made Buddhism the national religion
Taika Reform
Change in Japanese political and economic strucutre
Nara
First permanent capital of Japan
Fujiwara
Family which married their daughters to the sons of the imperial family and when a male child was born, formed the ruling emperor to abdicate
Yorimoto
Leader of the Minamoto clan who became the supreme military leader of Japan when he defeated the only remaining powerful clan
Shogun
Title granted to Torimoto by the powerless emperor
Warrior
Class which became the leading class in Japanese society after the clans were broken up
samurai
Name for the Japanese warriors
Bushido
The unwritten military code which governed the conduct of the samurai
hara-kiri
The ceremonial practice of committing suicide to avoid the disgrace of capture, atone for deeds of misconduct, or prove questioned loyalty to a master
Steppes
Grassy plains which stretch from western China to eastern Europe
Genghis Khan
One of the greatest conquerors in history, he conquered much of Asia but died before he had conquered all of China
Horse
The most prized Mongol possession
Yuan
Mongol dynasty established by Kublai Khan in China
Kublai Khan
The last of the Great Khans who conquered southern China
Cambaluc
City where Kublai Khan moved China's capital
Batu Khan
Grandson of Genghis Khan who led the Mongols into Europe
Golden Horde
The Strongest Mongol state in Western Asia (Russia)
Ivan III
Grand Prince of Russia who refused to pay further tribute to the Mongols and helped Russia to eventually come out from under Mongol rule
autocratic
Ruling with unlimited authority
Moscow
The "Third Rome"
Tamerlane
Claimed to be a descendant of Genghis Khan, he raised an army and began a new wave of Mongol invasions and defeated the Ottoman Turks in Asia Minor
Babur
Descendant of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane who became the leader of the Turkish-Mongol tribes in modern Afghanistan and conquered India
Mughal
Dynasty established by Babur in India
Akbar
Greatest Mughal ruler who expanded the empire in India and brought many reforms to the India government
Kush
One of two important cities in early African history which conquered Egypt
Aksum
Defeated Kush in Africa and embrased Christianity
Frumentius
Syrian Christian who helped convert the kingdom of Aksum to Christianity
Niger
Important river in Africa which provided a base for many empires
Mansa Musa
Most famous ruler of Mali who attracted many scholars to Mali making the book more valuable for trade than gold
Kilwa
A prosperous city-state in Eastern Africa (now called Tanzania)
Swahili
The language of the city-states which contained elements of Arabic, Persian, and Indian
Benin
Most important of the Forest Kingdoms, it was a center for trade and produced bronze relief sculpture
Polygamy
Marrying more than one wife which was common in African culture