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Mayas
The Indians of one of the most advanced early civilizations of the Western Hemisphere; made their home in Central America.
Incas
Ancient civilization (1200-1500AD) that was located in the Andes in Peru
Aztecs
The Aztecs were a Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
John Cabot
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
Jamestown
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. . The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619. First elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia. Served as an early model of elected government in the New World.
Proprietary colonies
Colonies in which the proprietors (who had obtained their patents from the king) named the governors, subject to the king's approval.
William Berkeley
a Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
Bacons Rebellion
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attempt to gain more land
Roger Williams
He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.
Antinomianism
the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture)
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
Thomas Hooker
A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.
Halfway Covenant
A Puritan church policy of 1662, which allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members.
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England.
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
Phillis Wheatley
American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)
John Peter Zenger
journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.
Albany Plan of Union
plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown
Peace of Paris
This ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.
Whigs
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster, John Tyler
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Democratic-Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Pontiacs Rebellion
a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area
Declaratory Act
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Sam Adams
A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.
committee of correspondence
colonial organization organized in 1770 to spread news of Great Britain's actions and acts throughout the colonies
Port Act
this closed Boston Harbor, prohibiting trade in or out until the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party was paid for
Massachusetts Government Act
This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior of the colony.
John Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
First Continental Congress
Delegates from all colonies except Georgia met to discuss problems with Britain and to promote independence
John Jay
United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court
Jay Treaty
It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
created by delegates from nine colonies, set forth view of British power in colonies. Parliament didn't have right to tax colonists without their legislative consent and demanded repeal of Stamp and Sugar Acts
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands.
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Prohibitory Act
Declared all colonists rebellion and suspended trade among British and American Colonies
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage, Shays rebellion happened due to this
Shays Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention.
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
Three-fifths Compromise
The agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves
Judiciary Act
A 1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation
Edmund Randolph
a delegate from Virginia at the Constitutional convention. He proposed the large state compromise of a bicameral legislature
Pinckney Treaty
agreement between the united states and Spain that changed Florida's border and made it easier for American ships to use the port of new Orleans
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
These stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstitutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts
Marbury v. Madison
The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Embargo Act
signed by Thomas Jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all American goods and American ships from sailing for foreign ports
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the War of 1812
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largely viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Fletcher v. Peck
Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Treaty of 1818
it established the 49th parallel fixing the northern border between the US and Canada from Minnesota to Oregon
Tallmadge Amendment
The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted.
Lowell System
dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills
Daniel Webster
Senator who, originally pro-North, supported the Compromise of 1850 and subsequently lost favor from his constituency
John Deere
United States industrialist who manufactured plows suitable for working the prairie soil (1804-1886)
Nativists
Americans who feared that immigrants would take jobs and impose their Roman Catholic beliefs on society
Nat Turner
United States slave and insurrectionist who in 1831 led a rebellion of slaves in Virginia
Spoils system
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Tariff of 1828
a high tariff on imports that benefited the industrial North while forcing Southerners to pay higher prices on manufactured goods; called the "Tariff of Abominations" by Southerners
Indian Removal Act
removed indians from southern states and put them on reservations in the midwest
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
(1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a separate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status"
Worcester v. Georgia
case where the state of Georgia tried to remove the Cherokee Indians, but Congress said it was illegal to remove them off their own land
Roger Taney
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court
Specie Circular
Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything - required land speculation in speci; Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver
Panic of 1837
Economic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks' and over-speculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stabilize and lessen the economic situation
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Timothy Dwight
He was an educated Reverend who helped initiate the Second Great Awakening. His campus revivals inspired many young men to become evangelical preachers.
Mormons
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah
Joseph Smith
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
Brigham Young
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
Transcendentalism
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
Margaret Fuller
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited "The Dial" which was the publication of the transcendentalists.
Shakers
a celibate and communistic Christian sect in the United States
Oneida
The Perfectionist Utopian movement began in New York. People lived in a commune and shared everything, even marriages. Today, the town is known for manufacturing silverware.
New Harmony
This was a society that focused on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.
Washington Irving
United States writer remembered for his stories (1783-1859)
Nathaniel Hawthorne
later rejected them and became a leading anti-transcendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
Thomas Gallaudet
set up a school for the deaf in hartford, connecticut
Samuel Gridley Howe
he became the first director of the New England Institution for the Education of the Blind the first such institution in the United States. Howe directed the school for the rest of his life
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
The Liberator
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
The North Star
antislavery newspaper published by Fredrick Douglass
David Ruggles
an anti-slavery activist who was active in the New York Committee of Vigilance and the Underground Railroad. He claimed to have led over six hundred people, including friend and fellow abolitionist Frederick Douglass, to freedom in the North.
William Still
African American abolitionist and author; wrote The Underground Railroad which chronicles how he helped 649 slaves escape to freedom via the Underground Railroad
Liberty Party
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a call for us annexation of the oregon territory
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Ostend Manifesto
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama;
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
Elias Howe
invented the sewing machine
Free-Soil Party
political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state, American System
Uncle Toms Cabin
1852, harriet beecher stowe, antislavery book, widely read- hated by southerners - made northerners more skeptical of slavery
Lecompton Constitution
Pro-slave constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Supreme Court case that decided US Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in federal territories and slaves, as private property, could not be taken away without due process - basically slaves would remain slaves in non-slave states and slaves could not sue because they were not citizens
Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Crittenden Compromise
A last-ditch effort to resolve the secession crisis by compromise. It proposed to bar the government from intervening in the states' decision of slavery, to restore the Missouri Compromise, and to guarantee protection of slavery below the line. Lincoln rejected the proposal, causing the gateway to bloodshed to be open.
Winfield Scott
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
George McCllelan
major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly as the general-in-chief of the Union Army; relieved of command
13th amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Copperheads
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Morrill Tariff Act
1861 law that increased tariffs duties to 10%
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Morrill Land Grant Act
passed by Congress in 1862, this law distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.
Ex Parte Milligan
was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled suspension of Habeas Corpus by President Abraham Lincoln as constitutional
Wade-Davis Bill
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
Radical Republicans
political party that favored harsh punishment of southern states after Civil War
Civil Rights act of 1866
Act that prohibits any racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing
14th amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Reconstruction Acts
1867 - Pushed through Congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
15th amendment
This amendment granted black men the right to vote.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Scalawags
southern whites who supported Republican policy throughout reconstruction
Carpetbaggers
northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
Boss Tweed
Leader of the Democratic Tammany Hall, New York political machine
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by over-speculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response refusing to coin silver
Amnesty Act of 1872
gave forgiveness to former Confederates and Whites in the South and allowed them to vote again
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Plessy v. Ferguson
supreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilities where equal
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Munn v. Illinois
(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads
Wabash v. Illinois
Supreme court ruling that states could not regulate interstate commerce
Intersate commerce Act
1887 established federal government right to supervise railroad activities and created five member interstate commerce.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Panic of 1893
Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Vertical integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
Horizontal integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
United States v. E.C. Knight
ruled that the Sherman Antitrust Act could only be applied only to commerce ,not to manufacturing.
yellow dog contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
National Labor Union
wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers
American Federation of Labor
a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
Homestead Strike
Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers
Pullman Strike
1894 - nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages - Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused Chinese population in America to decrease.
W.E.B. Dubois
encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910
Gilded Age
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Stalwarts
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
Half-Breeds
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
Mugwumps
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
Pendleton Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
McKinley Tariff
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
William Seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
teller amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Platt amendment
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
big-stick policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Root-Takahira Agreement
Agreement between US and Japan officially recognizing the territorial sovereignty of each nation
muckrakers
Journalists who attempted to find corruption or wrongdoing in industries and expose it to the public
Ida Tarbell
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Jacob Riis
he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
referendum
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
Elkins Act
1903 law that forced railroads charge the same prices to all their customers
Hepburn Act
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
Pure Food and Drug Act
the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Newlands Reclamation Act
1902 act authorizing federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in the dry Western states
Mann-Elkins Act
extended the regulatory powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission to telephone and telegraph companies
Clayton Antitrust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
Sussex Pledge
A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.
Espionage Act
Two laws enacted to impose harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S participation in WW1
Schenck v. United States
Supreme court decides that any actions taken that present a "clear and present danger" to the public or government isn't allowed, this can limit free speech
irreconcilables
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
American Expeditionary Force
About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing
Red Scare
Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas
Teapot Dome
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion
lost generation
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
functionalism
a psychology based on the assumption that all mental process are useful to an organism in adapting to the environment
Volstead Act
Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
Washington Conference
An international conference on the limitation of naval fleet construction begins in Washington. Under the leadership of the American Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes the representatives of the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan pledge not to exceed the designated sizes of their respective naval fleets
Kellogg-Briand Treaty
This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. it sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy.
Dawes Act 1924
rescheduled German reparations payments and opened way for further US private loans to Germany.
Wagner Act
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
Bonus March
Group of World War I veterans who marched on Washington, D.C., in 1932 (during the Great Depression) to demand the immediate payment of their pension bonuses, Largest protest
Public Works Administration
(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
Schechter v. United States
1935, Congress cannot delegate legislative power over industry codes to the President
Fair Labor Standards Act
1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
Stimson Doctrine
1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
good-neighbor policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Pan-American conferences
1933: the US decided never to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries 1936: FDR pledged to submit future disputes to arbitration and warned that if Europe attempted to commit any aggression against us, a whole hemisphere would come together for our safety and mutual good
Tydings-Mcduffie Act
Passed by Congress in 1934, this act gave full self-government to the Philippines, except for the control of its foreign policy by Washington for 10 more years. Washington would provide protection and independence was promised in 1944, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines.
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, Japan
neutrality acts
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
Selective Training and Service Act
1940 law requiring all males aged 21 to 36 to register for military service
Lend-Lease Act
Allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war
Smith v. Allwright
A supreme court case in 1944 that ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny membership in political parties to African Americans as a way of excluding them from voting in primaries.
Korematsu v. U.S.
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans.
GI Bill
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Employment Act of 1946
committed the federal government to ensuring economic growth and established the Council of Economic Advisors
Taft-Hartley Act
Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices; also known as Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)
Progressive Party
Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912.
George Kennan
He was an American diplomat and ambassador best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
National Security Act
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
Dennis et. al. v. United States
1951, made it illegal to advocate or teach the overthrow of the government by force or belong to an organization with this objective. (upheld the Smith Act of 1940)
House Un-American Activities Committee
established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty in the US
Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
modern Republicanism
Eisenhower's government plan: "conservative when it comes to economics, more Liberal when it comes to social programs "
Geneva Conference
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
Eisenhower Doctrine
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Civil Rights Commission
set up by the Civil Rights Act and was made to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights
Beatniks
a United States youth subculture of the 1950s that rebelled against the mundane horrors of middle class life.
Alliance For Progress
a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
provided aid especially to poor school disctricts
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Black Panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
Gideon v. Wainwright
A person who cannot afford an attorney may have one appointed by the government
Edcobedo V. Illinois
1964, required police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent
Miranda V. Arizona
The accused must be notified of their rights before being questioned by the police
Baker V. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congressional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
Yates V. United States
the First Amendment protected radical and revolutionary speech, even by Communists, unless it was a 'clear and present danger" to the safety of the country.
Engel V. Vitale
The 1962 Supreme Court decision holding that state officials violated the First Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York's schoolchildren.
New Left
new political movement of the late 1960s that called for radical changes to fight poverty and racism
Equal Pay Act
made it illegal for employers to pay female workers less than men for the same job
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
This gave the president authority to take "all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States."
Tet Offensive
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
Vietnamization
President Richard Nixon's strategy for ending U.S involvement in the Vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Nixon Doctrine
the U.S. will not do the majority of fighting in countries threatened by communism, will provide aid
Kent State
National Guard shot and killed 3 students at the University
Paris Accords of 1973
promised a cease fire and free elections in North Vietnam
New Federalism
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states
Detente
Easing of relations
United States v. Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive privelage was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions
War Powers Act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
Iran hostage crisis
a group of Iranians overran the American embassy in Iran's capital of Tehran and took 52 hostages
Immigration Act 1965
(LBJ) Established new immigration system that allowed more immigrants into the U.S.
Indian Self-Determination Act
1974 act that granted Native American tribes control of federal aid programs on the reservations and oversight of their own schools
Clean Air Act
Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants
Clean Water Act
Federal Law setting a national goal of making all natural surface water fit for fishing and swimming by 1983, banned polluted discharge into surface water and required the metals be removed from waste
conservatism
a political or theological orientation advocating the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Roe v. Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
Regents of University of California v. Blake
A 1978 Supreme Court decision holding that a state university could not admit less qualified individuals solely because of their race.
Reagonomics
Ronald Reagan's economic beliefs that a captitalist system free from taxation and government involvement would be most productive
Iran-Contra Affair
Scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the contras in Nicaragua even though congress had objected
Persian Gulf War
a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
Bush v. Gore
use of 14th amendment's equal protection clause to stop the florida recount in the election of 2000
Operation Iraqi Freedom
an invasion led by the United States in 2003 to stop the development of nuclear weapons by Iraq
Jamestown
joint-stock company foundation, tobacco was major crop
Headright System
The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land
City on a Hill
John Winthrop wanted Massachusetts Bay Colony to be a Puritan model society based on Christian principles. Puritans tried to live perfect lives.
Salutary Neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
Deism
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
Lowell System
dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills