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Unit 4: AP American Studies
Terms in this set (54)
Expansion of white Americans across the country- westward that was ordained by God.
Mission at San Antonio, Texas that was the site in 1836 of a siege and massacre of Texans by Mexican troops.
Republic of Texas
Independent nation of Texas, that was created after Texans defeated Mexico, and lasted until Texas was annexed to the United States.
War fought between Mexico and the US between 1846-48 over control of territory in southwest North America.
David Wilmot (PA) proposed a resolution prohibiting slavery from all territory acquired from Mexico. Every Northerner, Democrat & Whig alike supported this. All Southerners opposed it.
Free Soil Party
Political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery. No new slavery in newly acquired lands.
A solution to the slavery crisis suggested by Lewis Cass by which territories, not Congress, would decide whether or not to have slavery.
1858: Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate.
Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi River, and to take an army through heart of south. (Disrupts supply lines)
William Tecumseh Sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West. He captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two.
March to the Sea
This phrase was referred to Sherman and his force marching through Georgia and destroying many Confederate supplies and land to weaken their morale.
Appomattox Court House
Site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant.
17th president of the United States, came to office after Lincoln's assassination and opposed Radical Republicans; he was impeached.
Period after the Civil war when the US was trying to rebuild the South (physically) and the country ("symbolically"): 1865-1877.
Formal accusation against a public official, the first step in removal from office.
Ku Klux Klan
Perhaps the most prominent of the vigilante groups that terrorized black people in the South during the Reconstruction Era, founded by Confederate veterans in 1866.
Amendment ratified in 1865 that freed all slaves throughout the US.
Agency established by Congress in 1865 to provide social, educational, and economic services, advice, and protection to former slaves and destitute whites; lasted 7 years.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Act that gave full citizenship to African Americans
Amendment that gave full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.
Amendment passed by Congress in 1869 that guaranteed the right of American men to vote, regardless of race.
Labor system that evolved during and after Reconstruction where by landowners furnished laborers with a house, farm animals, tools, and advanced credit in exchange for a share of the laborers' crop.
Election of 1876
Extremely close election in which the Republican and Democratic candidates tied; ended Reconstruction.
Compromise of 1877
Compromise that enables Hayes to take office in return for the end of Reconstruction.
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
An 1852 novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe written to show the evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Act.
Compromise of 1850
1. Admitted California as a free state.
2. Allowed residents of NM and UT territories to decide the slave issue for themselves.
3. Ended slave trade in Washington D.C.
4. Passed a new Fugitive Slave Law that enforced people to return fugitive slaves.
Law passed in 1854 creating the Kansas and Nebraska territories but leaving the question of slavery open to residents, thereby repealing the Missouri Compromise.
Violence between pro- and antislavery forces in Kansas territory after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
New England abolitionist that attempted to free Virginia's slaves with a raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in 1859.
Political party of the 1850s that was anti-Catholic and ANTI-IMMIGRANT.
Also called the Know-Nothing Party
Emerged in the 1850s in the aftermath of the bitter controversy over the Kansas-Nebraska Act, consisting of former Whigs, some Northern Democrats, and many Know-Nothings.
Election of 1856
Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty.
Dred Scott vs. Sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that living in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.
Location of federal arsenal that John Brown raided to get guns to arm slaves.
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth.
Legal Tender Act
Act creating a legal currency in 1861.
Morrill Tariff Act
Act that raised tariffs to more than double their prewar rate.
Law passed by Congress in 1862 providing homesteads with 160 acres of free land in exchange for improving the land within 5 years of the grant.
President of the Confederate States of America.
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force.
Ulysses S. Grant
18th President of the United States. He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
1864: Plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy; however, Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
It was a major Union victory over the South. It removed all hopes in the South of getting foreign support.
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 1862 and it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free, formally issued 1/1/1863.
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "Angel" and nurse in the Civil War.
The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point. Fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
Grant's best fought campaign, this siege ended in the seizure of the Mississippi River by the Union.
Jim Crow Laws
Segregation laws that became widespread in the South during the 1890s.
Plessy vs Ferguson
Supreme court decision holding that Louisiana's railroad segregation law did not violate the Constitution as along as the railroads or the state provided equal accommodations.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Unit 2 AP American Studies
Unit 3: AP American Studies
PHS - 1st Semester Review
Amstud Semester Exam Review
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