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AP Human Geography Unit 7
Terms in this set (50)
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban.
people living in a large densely populated municipality, legally incorporated into an independent unit.
physical character of a place.
physical position in relation to the surroundings.
cities that were deliberately established or developed as administrative commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers.
a ranking of settlements (hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis) according to their size and economic functions.
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
the largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
a group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce.
Links between World Cities
many are important stock exchanges and contain major concentrations of business services.
a city with a population of greater than 10 million.
a region in which several large cities and surrounding areas grow together.
residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants.
cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.
Central Place Theory
theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
German geographer who in the early 1930s first formulated central-place theory as a series of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban centers. Crucial to his theory is the fact that different goods and services vary both in threshold and in range.
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
the minimum number of people needed to support the service.
community's collection of basic industries.
expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or introduction of another economic activity.
cities that were developed hugely as an effect of the Industrial Revolution.
a process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
the study of the physical form and structure of urban places.
Concentric Zone Model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sector, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district.
Multiple Nuclei Model
a model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of node of activities.
a model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Latin American model
large plaza in center with church (tallest building) as you go out from plaza it was grid roads. The further out, less wealthy it gets. "the spine": main transportation into city (large road). wealthy downtown and along spine. poorest on outer edge, called the "Favelas".
the way in which streets are designed.
Transit Oriented Development
development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth.
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation.
when a city incorporates land beyond city limits for a specific structure. (ex: airport)
The City Beautiful Movement
beautifying urban environments by providing parks and other green spaces. Access to these areas was determined on race and class. Immigrants and middle class used these areas because of their small home space.
rebuilding of the poor areas of a city.
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland.
outlined by a group of architects, urban planners, and developers from over 20 countries, an urban design that calls for development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
development that combines housing and businesses in one area.
Inner City Challenges
crime and gang activity are major challenges.
development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city centre.
the change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
cities that are located on the on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decetralized suburban environment.
net migration from urban to rural areas in MDC's.
a ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
developments that jump over established developments , leaving undeveloped or underdeveloped land between developments.
restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America gated communities are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon.
Peak Value Land Intersection
the region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce.
group of workers in multiple industries united by the fact that creativity is central to their productive work.
a group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
the state or condition of having no home (especially the state of living in the streets).
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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