169 terms

Soc. Psy. Final

a peceived incompatibility of actions or goals
a condition marked by low levels of hostility and aggression and by mutually beneficial relationships
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing its self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Examples include the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Tragedy of the commons
social trap
occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse of the shared resources
tragedy of the commons
games in which outcomes need not sum to zero. with cooperation, both can win; with competition, both can lose
non zero sum games
reciprocal views of each other often held by parties in conflict; for example, each may view itself as moral and peace-loving and the other as evil and aggressive
mirror image perceptions
contact on an equal basis. just as a relationship between people of unequal staus breeds attitudes consistent with their relationship, so do relationships between those of same status.
equal status contact
a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people's differences from one another
superorinate goal
seeking an agreement to a conflict through direct negotiation between parties
an attempt by a neutral third party to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions
resolution fo a conflict by a neutral thrid party who studies both sides and imposes a settlement
win-win agreements that reconcile both parties' interests to their mutual benefit
integrative agreements
acronym for "graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction" a strategy designed to de-escalate international tensions
what are the 4 Cs of peacemaking?
contact, cooperation, communication, conciliation
incorporating "misinformation" into one's memory of the event after witnessing an event and receiving misleading information about it
misinformation effect
a motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom. arises when someone threatens our freedom of action
this form of police interviewing improves accuracy of information
cognitive interview
the more confident that an eyewitness seems, the more likely the jury will believe their testimony. true or false
jurors think that eyewitnesses who remember trivial details are more accurate. true or false
states with the death penalty have a lower homicide rate. true or false
in sherif's study of two summer camp groups, conflict arouse when this was introduced
according to Myers' discussion of intuition, which statement is true?
a. our intuitions about ourselves are usually true
b. intuitions are carefully considered beliefs
c. intution is both powerful and perilous
d. intuition is not important
according to the text, values enter the work of social psychology when researchers
a. collect data for their studies
b. present the results of their studies
c. summarize their studies
d. choose the topics of their studies
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next is referred to as
a. nationality
b. race
c. social representations
d. culture
another name for the "i-knew-it-all-along phenomenon" is the
a. retrospective bias
b. information bias
c. prediction bias
d. hindsight bias
a testable proposition that describes a relationship which may exist between events is a
a. statement
b. bias
c. correlation
d. hypothesis
studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others describes what type of research
a. correlational research
b. experimental research
c. laboratory research
d. field research
variable x is correlated with variable y. which of the folloing could explain this correlation
a. x causes y
b. y causes x
c. a third variable causes or influences both x and y
d. all of these are possible explanations
your psychology professor tells you that she is collecting data on the amount that students study and their grades (i.e. she is asking each student to report how many hours he/she studies each week, so that she can determine if there is a relationship between hours spent studying and grades) what type of research is this?
a. correlational research
b. experimental research
c. controlled research
d. hypothetical research
a sample in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion is called a __ sample
a. mixed
b. diverse
c. fair
d. random
an important factor in survey research is how closely the sample reflects the population under study. this is referred to as sample
a. fairness
b. strategy
c. size
d. representativeness
research on the wording of survey questions suggests that
a. how questions are framed can influence how they are answered
b. how questions are framed has very little influence on how they are answered
c. wording is an unimportant element of survey research
d. framing the questions differently will not influence the results
the experimental factor that a researcher manipulates in a study is called the __ variable
a. control
b. independent
c. dependent
d. correlational
an experimentor exposed participants to different room temperatures to determine their effects on aggression. aggression was the
a. independent variable
b. dependent variable
c. control variable
d. confounding variable
a major requirement of the ethical principles of social psychological research is that the researcher
a. use random sampling and assignment
b. protect participants from harm and significant discomfort
c. refrain from using any deception in the research design
d. ensure that all participants know what is expected of them
deception in an experiment is
a. unethical
b. always required
c. used only if it is essential and justified
d. useful in affecting subjects' willingness to participate
the belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they actually are is referred to as the __ effect
a. transparency
b. audience
c. spotlight
d. headlight
the illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others is referred to as the illusion of
a. transparency
b. an audience
c. the spotlight
d. the headlight
when you give a presentation in class and feel extremely nervous you will tend to __ what others think about your nervousness
a. understimate
b. overestimate
c. successfully predict
d. have no idea
a person's answer to the question "who am i" comprises his or her
a. personality
b. self-schema
c. self-esteem
d. self-concept
a study by Gilovich, Medvec and Savitsky had undergraduate students enter a room wearing Barry Minilow T-shirts. this study explored which concept mentioned in the text
a. transparency effect
b. audience effect
c. spotlight effect
d. headlight effect
images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future are called our
a. hoped-for selves
b. transparent selves
c. possible selves
d. eventual selves
an example of how social comparisons can actually breed misery, rather than stisfaction is when we
a. compare ourselves to close friends
b. compare ourselves to strangers
c. raise the standards by which we evaluate our own attainments
d. lower the standards by which we evaluate our own attinments
a person from an __ culture is more likely to say went to the movie and a person from an __ culture is more likely to say i went to the movie
a. individualistic; collectivist
b. collectiviestic; individualistic
c. self-centered; other-centered
d. other-centered; self-centered
the planning fallacy is the tendency to
a. overestimate how long a task will take
b. not make plans
c. predict accurately how long a task will take
d. underestimate how long a task will take
when we accommodate and adjust to personal injuries, romantic breakups, and exam failures, we cope more readily than we would expect. Wilson and Gilbert referred to this phenomenon as
a. immune neglect
b. our psychological immune system
c. our psychological denial system
d. rationalizing
your best friend earned a grade of F on her latest physics exam and believes it was because of the professor wrote a very difficult exam. she is demonstrating a __ locus of control
a. internal
b. external
c. high
d. low
the sense of hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over reapeated negative events is called
a. depression
b. low self exteem
c. learned hopelessness
d. learned helplessness
if your initial efforts to lose weight, stop smoking, or improve your grades are successful, it is likely that your self efficacy will
a. increase
b. decrease
c. stay the same
d. eventually become stable
according to your text, when we compare ourselves with others, most of us tend to
a. view others as superior
b. view everyone as relatively average
c. ignore our strenths and focus on their strengths
d. see ourselves as better than the average person
john is nervous about his tennis mathch, but he still stays out late instead of getting a good night's sleep the night before the match. this could be an example of
a. self handicapping
b. self serving bias
c. impression management
d. self presentation
activating particular associations in memory is called
a. triggering
b. initiation
c. galvanization
d. priming
despite reading numerous research studies that report the association of fast food consumption with heart disease and diabetes, reachel continues to eat fast food and thinks that it is harmless. rechel's thinking is an example of
a. belief assimilation
b. belief consolidation
c. belief perserverence
d. operation of the availability heuristic
incorporating inaccurate information into one's memory of an event, after witnessing the event and receiving misleading information about it is called
a. the priming effect
b. the confirmation bias
c. belief perserverence
d. the misinformation effect
your summer vacation was perhaps not an overwhelmingly positive event, but during the final week of august, you remember it as being a fantastic time, this is an example of
a. perserverence bias
b. fundamental attribution error
c. correspondence bias
d. rosy retrospection
explicit thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious is called
a. controlled processing
b. automatic processing
c. external processing
d. intentional processing
the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs is called the
a. perserverance bias
b. fundamental attribution error
c. correspondance bias
d. overconfidence phenomenon
one reason people are overconfident is that theya re not inclined to seek out information
a. from experts
b. that is objective and factual
c. that involves judging estimates and comparisons
d. that might disprove what they believe
which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgements
a. an implicit attitude
b. an explicit attitude
c. a heuristic
d. a confirmation bias
although travelors in the US are more likely to die in an authomobile crash than on a commercial flight covering the same distance, people often assume that flying is more dangerous than driving. wheat type of heurisitc are people using when they make this assumption
a. availability heuristic
b. representativeness heuristic
c. vividness heuristic
d. matching heuristic
the perception of a relationship where none actually exists, or the perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists, is called
a. a representative heuristic
b. an availability heuristic
c. an illusory correlation
d. the overconfidence phenomenon
according to the text, many men assume women are flattered by repeated requests for dates, which women more often see as harassing. this is an example of
a. arrogance
b. a lack of intuition
c. misattribution
d. miscommunication
a fellow student is consistently late for class. you assume this is because he is lazy and unorganized. what type of attribution are you making for his behavior
a. motivational
b. dispositional
c. situational
b. illusory
fundamental attribution error is the tendency for observers to ___ situational influences and ___ dispostional influences on behavior
a. overestimate; underestimate
b. underestimate; overestimate
c. underestimate; ignore
d. overestimate; ignore
you walk into your classroom just as the class before yours is getting out. you notice two people standing by a lectern at the front of the classroom: a 50 year old man and a 36 year old woman. you assume the man is the instructor and the woman is the student because most of your professors are older men. this is an eample of
a. the availability heuristic
b. representativeness heuristic
c. the overconfidence phenomenon
d. the confirmation bias
while sitting at a red light one her way to work, amber fumes why is it every time i'm late for work i get stuck at these red lights? amber most clearly holds a
a. illusory correlation
b. illusion of control
c. representativeness heuristic
d. misattribution
in the ABCs of attitudes, C stands for
a. care
b. connotation
c. cognition
d. concern
accofding to your text __ is the term Batson and his collegues used to describe the tendency to appear moral while avoiding the costs of being so
a. behavioral inconsistency
b. moral cowardice
c. moral hypocrisy
d. attitude behavior discrepancey
the implicit association test IAT intends to
a. meausre conscious attitudes
b. measure unconscious attitudes
c. measure both conscious and unconscious attitudes
d. measure our behaviors
the effect of __ on __ was vividly demonstrated in Zimbardo's classic study of a simulated prison
a. attitudes; behaviors
b. roles; attitudes
c. roles; behaviors
d. attitudes; roles
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later to a larger request is called the __ phenomenon
a. foot in the door
b. lowball
c. compliance
d. conformity
impression management or making a good impression by being consistent in our behavior is another term for
a. self presentation theory
b. self consistency theory
c. cognitive dissonance theory
d. self perception theory
which of the following theories assumes that to reduce discomfort we justify our actions to ourselves
a. self presentation theory
b. self consistency theory
c. cognitive dissonance theory
d. self perception theory
a research study had experiemental participants perform a dull task but paid them to lie by telling a prospective participant that the task had been enjoyable. results showed that they participants who were paid __ came to believe that the task had been __
a. $1; tedious and boring
b. $1; interesting and enjoyable
c. $20; interesting and enjoyable
d. $20; tedious and boring
after making important decisions, we usually reduce dissonance by __ the chosen alternative and __ the unchosen option
a. focusing on; ignoring
b. ignoring; focusing on
c. downgrading; upgrading
d. upgrading; downgrading
which theory assumes that we observe our actions for clues about our own attitudes and beliefs
a. self presentation
b. cognitive dissonance
c. self justification
d. self perception
Zimbardo attributed the behavior of the subjects in his stanford prison study to
a. his leadership behavior
b. the roles of the subjects played
c. the personality traits of prisoners
d. failures to process relevant information
when people are bribed to do what they already like doing, they start to see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. this is called the
a. foot in the door effect
b. self justivication effect
c. overjustification effect
d. insuffiecient justification effect
a store owner is conerned about shoplifiting. research on petent attitudes suggests that he can reduce theft by
a. installing metal detectors
b. attaching anti theft devices on his merchandise
c. installing eye level mirrors in his store
d. placing security guards at all exits
juan needed to decide if he should live at home with his parents or in a dorm this year. he liked the idea of the freedom of the dorm but knew it was cheaper to live at home. according to cognitive dissonance theory, after deciding to staty at home Juan will likely
a. wish that he had decided to move to the dorm
b. fell like he made the right decision but wish he could have afforded the move
c. feel confident that he made the best decision; dorms are expensive and dirty anyway
d. change his mind at the last minute and ultimatley live in the dorms
when asked if she likes her new neighbor alice says i guess so. I say hello to her all the time and loaned her my favorite book the other day. Alice's feelings are best explained by
a. self perception theory
b. cognitive dissonance theory
c. the insufficient justification effect
d. the overjustification effect
the evolutionary process by which nature selects traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environmental niches is called
a. evolutionalry adaptation
b. evolutionary psychology
c. natural adaptation
d. natural selection
seven year old mary says thank you after opening each birthday present she receives because her family considers it to be proper behavior. this best illustrates the influence of a
a. norm
b. schema
c. role
d. stereotype
the buffer space we like to maintain around our bodies is called personal
a. zone
b. space
c. place
d. distance
in psychology, the characteristics by which people define male and female, whether biologically or socially influenced is referred to as
a. sex
b. gender
c. sexual orientation
d. culture
Pratto and her colleagues reported that __ tend to gravitate toward jobs that reduce inequalities, such as public defender
a. the young
b. the elderly
c. men
d. women
the vicarious experience of another's feelings or ability to put oneself in another's shoes is
a. norm
b. altruism
c. sympathy
d. empathy
according to research on gender differences, which statement is not true
a. women are more skilled at expressing emotions nonverbally
b. women smile more than men
c. women describe themselves as having more empathy than men
d. women are more vulnerable to autism
evolutionary psychologists suggest that males are sexually assertive while females are more selective of sexual partners because
a. males outnumber females
b. each strategy is likely to promote gene survival
c. males and females are socialized differently
d. of differences in brain chemistry
evolutionary psychology would explian the male tendency to be attracted to women's physical feautures of youth and health because of
a. norms
b. roles
c. cultural support
d. reproductive fitness
higher than normal levels of testosterone have been found in
a. violent male criminals
b. male lawyers
c. gay men
d. married men
pat has qualities like assertiveness, a traditionally masculine trait , as well as nurturance, a quality associated with traditional femininity. pat could be described as
a. gender ambivalent
b. role conflicted
c. androgynous
d. gender diffused
in the mid 1960s married women in the US devoted seven times as many hours to housework as did their husbands, yet in the mid 1990s, this figure was down to two times as many hours. this pattern reflects how gender roles
a. are learned
b. are biologically determined
c. vary by culture
d. vary over time
a relationship in which the effect of one factor such as biology depends on another factor such as environment is the definition of
a. competition
b. interaction
c. interpolation
d. reciprocation
women are to men as __ is to __
a. independence; connectedness
b. competition; cooperation
c. expresseing emotions nonverbally; social dominance
d. sexual; aggressive
studies suggest that most women, if they stress one factory more than any other, tend to prefer men who
a. are healthy
b. are physically attractive
c. appear to be young and strong
d. have substantial resources and status
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with an implied or explicit request, while privately disagreeing is called
a. obedience
b. acceptance
c. cohesiveness
d. compliance
if you clean your room only because your parents order you to, your behavior is an example of
a. obedience
b. acceptance
c. inforamtional influence
d. compliance
in his classic study of __ sherif had participants in groups call out estimates of the distance that a small point of light appeared to move in a dark room
a. obedience
b. group cohesiveness
c. norm formation
d. psychological reactance
a year after his original study, sherif's participants were retested alone and gave answers that supported the original group's norm. this suggests that the process involved was really
a. reactance
b. compliance
c. obedience
d. acceptance
in the spring of 1954, Seattle residents were alarmed by widespread reports of damage by a mysterious windshield pitting agent. according to the text, the true cause of public concern was most likely
a. fallout from recent Pacific testing of the H bomb
b. mass suggestibility
c. psychological reactance
d. the autokinetic phenomenon
Milgram's studies explored __; Asch's studies explored__
a. obedience; conformity
b. conformity; norm formation
c. obedience; norm formation
d. conformity; obedience
the most famous and controversial experiments in social psychology were conducted by
a. sherif
b. milgrim
c. asch
d. watson
when participants in milgram's experiments wanted to quit, they were given
a. shocks to keep them going
b. money as an incentive to keep going
c. up to four verbal prods to keep them going
d. a reward for being one of the few to disobey
a psychiatrist who interviewed 40 of milgram's participants a year after their participation concluded that
a. none had been harmed
b. many were suspicious of all authorities
c. a minority of them had lowered self esteem
d. most regretted having served in milgram's study
research on group size and conformity has shown that there is more conformity with
a. 1-2 people than 3-5
b. 3-5 people than 1-2
c. more than 5 people than 3-5
d. 15 or more people
group members who feel attracted to the group are more responsive to its influence. this fact illustrates the impact of __ on conformity
a. unanimity
b. status
c. chesiveness
d. comorbidity
a concern for __ produces normative influence, while a concern for __ produces informaitonal influence
a. being liked; being correct
b. being correct; being liked
c. being correct; gaining status
d. social roles; being liked
milgram found that
a. very few people are willing to obey another person if it will lead to harm
b. only authoritarian persons are willing to obey
c. approximately 65% of his subjects were highly obedient
d. most people who obeyed did so happily
sherif's study took advantage of
a. the phi phenomenon
b. natural selection
c. obedience
d. the autokinetic phenomenon
all of the following factors increase the liklihood of obedience except
a. the distance of the victim
b. age and gender of the victim
c. the closeness of the authority
d. prestige of the institution/environment
which of the following is an example of aggression as it is defined in the text
a. sam accidentally slams the door too quickly and it hits tims kneww
b. luisa ures her classmates not to vote for marcy for dorm senator citing some rumors about marcys social life
c. carla a dentitst deliveres a shot of novocain before pulling her paitients tooth
d. joes eagerness and enthusiasm resulted in his being promoted to sales manager in a very short time
__ aggression springs from anger and its only goal is to injure
a. manipulative
b. duplictitous
c. hostile
d. instrumental
freud argued that aggression ultimately springs from
a. an innate sexual drive
b. a primitive death urge
c. observation of aggressive adult models
d. blocking of goal dircted behavior
a study of brain activity in the prefrontal cortex of murderors found
a. no differences between these men and normal controls
b. less activity than normal
c. spikes in activity level
d. more activity than normal
it was raining out and jessie's car had a flat tire. after she managed to fix it she arrived home late only to find someone had parked in her assigned parking spot when she entered her apartment she kicked her pet cat who was waiting at the door. jessies behavior is perhaps most easily explained in terms of
a. the frustration aggression theory
b. the adaptation level phenomenon
c. the murphys law
d. the social learning theory
your boss told you that she is giving you a 5 percent raise starting with your next paycheck. you are very pleased to hear this good news until you learn that some of your coworkers earned a 10 percent raise. now you are unhappy and angry about your raise. your experience is best explained in terms of
a. the adaptation level phenomeonon
b. the relative deprivation principle
c. displacement
d. parkinsons second law
according to bandura an important influence on one's tendency to be aggressive is
a. hormonal factors
b. how much anger or frustration has built up inside
c. one's hereditary predisposition to be aggressive
d. observations of others behavior
in a revision of the frustration aggression theory, berkowitz emphasized the importance of
a. anger, an emotional readiness to aggress
b. the role of biochemical influences such as alcohol
c. relative deprivation and the adaptation level phenomenon
d. catharsis as a reducer of frustration
violent crimes are more likely committed
a. in the winter rather than the summer
b. wehn the weather is hot
c. on nights with a full moon
d. during rainy periods
research suggests that the sight of a weapon can
a. elicit frustration
b. sensitize one to the dangers of violence
c. prime aggressive thoughts
d. produce catharsis
which of the following has been found to be an effect of sexual violence in movies and television
a. women are more likely to believe rape is a serious crime
b. men have become more accepting of violence against women
c. women have become more aggressive towrd other women
d. viewers are less accepting of violence against women
as part of therapy a clinical psychologist encourages her patients to install a punching bag in their homes to release hostility. the therapist apparently believes in
a. the social learning theory
b. parkinson's second law
c. the catharsis hypothesis
d. the adaptation level phenomenon
according to gintile and anderson, playing violent games might have a more toxic effect than watching violent television because
a. the players are passive
b. television appears more real
c. players play the role of a violent character
d. television violence is not rewarded
groups can amplify aggressive reacions partly by
a. inhibiting impulses
b. implementing the cathartic effect
c. diffusing responsibility
d. providing role models
what percentage of abused children go on to abuse their own children later in life
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
a motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing , positive interactions is the definition of
a. association anxiety
b. the need for attachment
c. the need to belong
d. affiliative predisposition
research on proximity and social attraction generally supports the view that
a. proximity breeds contempt
b. proximity leads to liking
c. proximity leads to affection and animosity with equal frequency
d. distance makes the heart grow fonder
the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after repeated exposure to them is referred to as
a. the mere exposure effect
b. the novelty phenomenon
c. display liking
d. proactive stimulation
when people describe themselves in personal ads women often offer __ and seek __
a. companionship; attractivenss
b. attractiveness; status
c. status; companionship
d. committment; excitement
ruth is quite attractive but naomi is strikingly attractive. research suggests that if ruth makes 35,000 a year on her job, naomi will probably make __ doing the same job
a. slightly less money
b. the same amount
c. more money
d. significantly less money
_____ is the process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors
a. compliance
c. inoculation
d. sleeper effect
you are more likely to be persuaded when a mesage is
a. clear and easy to comprehend and the arguments are unconvincing
b. difficult to comprehend and the arguments are unconvincing
c. clear and easy to comprehend and the arguments are convincing
d difficult to comprehend and the arguments are convincing
sally is interested in purchasing a DVD player and is overwhelmed by the many different models available at her local electronics store. she decides to consult a magazine devoted to reviewing the quality of home electronics. After reading a number of articles stating the pros and cons of each model she decides on a dvd player. Sally has been persuaded to purchase this particular dvd player because of the __________ route to persuasion.
a. peripheral
c. logical
d. image
acording to Myers, advertisers for beverages and clothing tend to adopt marketing strategies that use the ______ route to persuasion.
a. peripheral
b. central
c. logical
d. image
which route to persuasion is most likely to create long-lasting attitudes and behavioral changes?
a. peripheral
b. central
c. logical
d. image
a communicator is said to be ____________ when he or she is perceived as both an expert and trustworthy
a. honest
b. guileless
c. honorable
d. credible
you are attending a lecture by a banker and you expect her to advocate bank savings accounts. However, she advocates stock investments instead. Since her message goes against her own self-interest, you perceive her as _____ and the message as ______.
a.sincere; persuasive
b. insincere; not persuasive
c. sincere; not persuasive
d. insincere; persuasive
we tend to like people who are like us. This exemplifies which characteristic of attractiveness?
a. liking
b. similarity
c. consistency
d. physical appeal
The ______ effect refers to how in formation is presented first usually has the most influence.
a. recency
b. primacy
c. channel
d. initial
when Asch (1946) presented students with a description of someone as "intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, and envious," they rated the person ______ than if the opposite order of adjectives was presented.
a. less positively
b. more positively
c. less attractive
d. more attractive
People tend to have different social and political attitudes depending on their age because the attitudes older people adopted when they were young persist through life largely unchanged. This refers to the _____ explanation for how age plays a role in persuasion.
a. generational
b. life cycle
c. age
d. time
According to our text, which is NOT an element of persuasion?
a. the communicator
b. the channel
c. the audience
d. the medium
A cult has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
a. a distinctive ritual and beliefs that are related to its devotion to a god or person
b. the use of mind-altering drugs
c. isolation from the surrounding culture
d. a charismatic leader
Exposing people to weak attacks on their attitudes, which stimulates thinking in support of the initial attitude is known as
a. central route persuasion
b. attitude inoculation
c. psychological reactance
d. the boomerang effect
The tendency for people to believe that individuals get what they deserve and deserve what they get is called the _______ phenomenon.
a. retribution
b. just-world
c. ingroup bias
d. stereotype invulnerability
Two or more people who interact with and influence one another for longer than a few moments is what social psychologists call a
a. clan
b. crowd
c. group
d. mob
Triplett (1898) conducted one of social psychology's first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a positive relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel in the presence of other children. Later studies found the same pattern and dubbed it
a. the groupthink effect
b. the social facilitation effect
c. social loafing
d. deindividuation
Increased arousal enhances performance
a. only on enjoyable tasks
b. only on complex tasks
c. on dominant responses
d. on all responses
Which is NOT a factor in why other people create arousal in us?
a. apprehension
b. distraction
c. mere presence
d. vanity
Sam has a tendency to contribute little effort to to group assignments,as he thinks others will be sure to pick up the slack in an effort to get a good grade. This is an example of
a. social facilitation
b. social loafing
c. deindividuation
d. mere presence
when individual efforts are pooled and not evaluated, evaluation apprehension is ______ and the probability of social loafing is _____.
a. high; low
b. low; high
c. high; high
d. low; low
When being observed increases evaluation concerns, ______ occurs; when being lost in a crowd decreases evaluation concerns, ______ occurs.
a. deindividuation; groupthink
b.groupthink; deindividuation
c. social loafing; social facilitation
d. social facilitation; social loafing
The relationship between group size and the probability of deindividuation occurring is
a. positive
b. negative
c. neutral
d. curvilinear
Deindividuation is _____ likely when self-awareness is ______.
a. more; high
b. less; high
c. not; low
d. never; low
Group polarization occurs when group discussion _______ group members' initial inclinations
a. challenges
b. reverses
c. neutralizes
d. strengthens
________ in discussion produces more attitude change than does _______.
a. arguing; agreeing
b. agreeing; arguing
c. active participation; passive listening
d. passive listening; active participation
Which of the of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
a."we have been in agreement on matters in the past and I hope that will continue."
b. "Joe, why don't you play devil's advocate and challenge the course of action most of us seem to prefer?"
c. "I think we need some outsiders to come in and critique our decision before we proceed."
d. "We have made some stupid mistakes in the past. Let's work carefully to not make the same errors again."
"Mindguards" protect group leaders from
a. unfair criticism
b. disagreeable facts
c. susceptibility to illusions
d. stereotyped views of the opponents
Ideas about how men and women ought to behave are called _____, whereas people's ideas about how women and men do behave are called ____.
a. gender-role norms; gender stereotypes
b. gender stereotypes; gender-role norms
c. gender preferences; gender roles
d. sexist attitudes; sexist stereotypes
Altemeyer (2004) reported that _____ are among the most prejudiced persons in our society.
a. people high in social dominance
b. right wing authoritarians
c. people high in social dominance and authoritarianism
d. highly religious people
In examining photographs of people in magazines and newspapers, Archer and his colleagues (1983) found that, relative to the average female photo, the average male photo is more likely to
a. emphasize the face
b. emphasize the body
c. include the situational context
d. display a standing posture
When the cause of our frustration is intimidating or unknown, we often redirect our hostility. This phenomenon is known as
a. discrimination
b. displaced aggression
c. realistic group conflict
d. institutional supports
The realistic group conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises
a. whenever people try to live together
b. when a new group moves into an area
c. between groups who fail to communicate clearly with each other
d. when groups compete for scarce resources
"Them" -- a group that people perceive as being distinctively different or apart from their ingroup -- is what social psychologists call a(n)
a. ingroup
b. outgroup
c. scapegoat
d. bias group
Mr. Wong, a high school teacher, tells his class that he thinks boys tend to be less anxious and thus make better speeches than girls do. The girls in his class become apprehensive when preparing and giving speeches in his class. The girls are experiencing
a. a stereotype threat
b. the just-world phenomenon
c. the scapegoating effect
d. personal/group discrimination discrepancy
The tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race is called the
a. ingroup heterogeneity effect
b. outgroup heterogeneity effect
c. own-race bias
d. faceism effect
Your co-worker tells you that she has both a pet snake and a pet dog at home. You are most likely to describe her to new office employees as a
a. snake owner
b. dog owner
c. both a snake owner and a dog owner
d. co-worker
Because we are sensitive to distinctive events, the simultaneous occurrence of two such events is especially noticeable. Our attractiveness to unusual occurrences can create
a. the group-serving bias
b. authoritarianism
c. the outgroup homogeneity effect
d. illusory correlations