TuHS Feeding the World: Cell Structure & Processes

the process of protein sythesis
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Terms in this set (...)

transcription
the process where the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
translation
the process where genetic information coded in mRNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome
mRNA
type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
tRNA
type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
codon
sequence of three bases on a strand of mRNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
complementary base pairing
In DNA, T pairs with A; G pairs with C;
RNA, U pairs with A and G pairs with C
cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
ribosome
organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
nucleus
A part of the cell containing DNA
amino acid
building block of protein
nucleotide
molecule that makes up DNA (A,T, C, or G) and RNA (A,U, C, or G)
DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
transcription
The first stage of protein synthesis where the information on a section of DNA (a gene) is copied by making a mRNA molecule from the DNA.
translation
The second part of protein synthesis. The mRNA code is used to synthesize a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
mRNA
What is C? It takes the information in a gene from the nucleus to a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
Protein (amino acid chain)
What is B?
tRNA
What is A? Brings the correct amino acid to the ribosome to be added to the growing amino acid chain.
codon
What is A? A three base sequence on an mRNA molecule that codes for a specific amino acid
DNA
What is A? Double stranded molecule that contains genes and is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Traits
All living organisms have specific characteristics (like blond hair or black hair)
DNA
What is A?
mRNA
What is A?
ribosome
What is A?
tRNA
What is A?
codon
What is A?
Protein Synthesis
Process is shown in this diagram
Gene
Sections of DNA that produce proteins.
Mutations
A change to the DNA sequence could produce these.
Genetically modified organism (GMO)
Adding new genes to an organism