coast of Peru, a highly-developed urban culture as early as 2500 B.C.E. Characterized by massive stepped pyramids and extensive use of cotton., An urban civilization in the Supe River Valley (Peru) distinguished by its smaller cities, less economic specialization than Mesopotamia , rich fishing, agricultural supported by irrigation, and unlike Egypt or Mesopotamia, civilization did not rest on grain-based farming, quipu-no writing, lacking defensive walls, little evidence of warfare, and receiving only the import maize, different because it was a self-contained society. Caral was the largest of some twenty-five urban centers that emerged in the area at that time. set of laws that dealt with business practices, property ownership, medical practice, marrige, and childcare, the set of laws drawn up by Babylonian king Hammurabi dating to the 18th century BC, one of the earliest legal code known in its entirety. Hammurabi claimed the law code was inspired by Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, to "bring about the rule of righteousness in the land to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers, so the strong could not harm the weak." In some states, religion justified unequal power. The Code of Hammurabi undermined this way of thinking. Located near today's Mexico City. 150 B.C.E.-550 C.E. very urban and complex architecture, effective political and military strategies to gain valued foreign goods. Comparison: the art does not glorify the individual like Mayan art nor written transcriptions. Oligarchy rather than Monarch. , an ancient city- state whose remains are located outside of Mexico City. First began in the first century, when the inhabitants of the village located on the site began to plan and build a huge city. At its peak in the 700s, had between 150,000 and 200,000 people living there, making it one of the largest cities in existence at the time. Had more than 20 pyramids consecrated to the gods, but the largest was the Pyramid of the Sun. It became the center of a thriving trade network that extended far into Central America. There is no evidence that it conquered its neighbors or tried to create an empire, however, evidence of the art styles and religious beliefs from the city have been found throughout Mesoamerica. After centuries of growth, the city began a sudden and abrupt decline, which is believed to have been caused by an invasion from outside forces or a fight among the city's nobility. It was abandoned by 750.