39 terms

Grammar

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Noun
Name people, places,things, or ideas, such as grandfather, peacock, kitchen, etc.
Proper nouns
Name particular people, places, things, or ideas. They are always capitalized.

For example, William Loman, Islam, Zaire, Machu Picchu and Barack Obama.
Collective nouns
Name groups. The singular form is sometimes considered singular and sometimes plural.
For example, committee or choir.
Abstract noun
Name ideas, qualities, or characteristic.
For example, fear, spirit, love, and kindness.
Verb
Express action, state, or a relation between two things, and that may be inflected for tense, aspect, voice, mood, and to show agreement with their subject or object.
For example, the woman holds the balloons in her hands on the beach.
Linking Verbs
Connect the subject of a sentence with words or groups of words that identify or describe it. For example, tomorrow will be bright and sunny.
Adjectives
Modify nouns and pronouns. For example, the man has a blue jacket on.
Comparative adjectives
Are used when comparing two nouns. For example, The brown cat is older, than the black cat. My house is bigger than my sister's house. The man is bigger than the woman.
Superlative adjectives
Are used to compare at least 3 things or 3 groups of things. For example, I am in the smallest class in the school. The car at the end of the street is the nicest.
Adverbs
Modify verbs and adjectives.
Examples: run quickly, deeply embarrassed, Quite nicely, rather handsome., and just barely.
Prepositions
Shows relationship of nouns and pronoun to other words in the sentence. These relationship often indicate space or time.
In the closet, after lunch, outside the perimeter.
Action Verb
Describe physical or mental action, such as jog, smile, think, and worry.
For example, Wolverine fights the bad guys.
Transitive Verb
Are action verbs followed by words that answer what? or whom?
Jack made his own cake.
Compound prepositions
Consist of more than one word in showing relationships of noun, and pronouns to other words in a sentence. According to the law, on top of the old Smokey, and out of the ordinary are all compound prepositions.
Subordinating Conjuctions
Join two clauses so that one clause depends grammatically upon the other.
Common nouns
Are general names of people,places, things, etc. For example, fire fighter, coffee shop, waiter, boy, and area. They do not start with a capital letter unless they are at the beginning of the sentence.
Colons
this is primarily used to introduce information. It can start lists also
Example:
"There were several things that Susan had to get at the store: bread, cereal, lettuce, and tomatoes."
semicolons
these are used like "super commas". They show a stronger stop than a comma doe, but are not the same as a period. Semicolons are primarily used to separate independent clauses. They can also be used in a lists if one or more element in the list is itself made up of a smaller list.
Example:
"Chris went to the shore; he bought chips and salsa."
Commas
the most commonly used punctuation mark in English. Commas can break the flow of writing to give it a more natural sounding style, and they are the main punctuation mark used to separate ideas. Commas also separate lists, introductory adverbs, introductory prepositional phrases, dates, and addresses.
The past progressive tense
this tense is used to speak of an action that was in progress in the past when another event occurred. The action was unfolding at a point in the past.

Example:
"He was running very fast when he fell."
"They were drinking coffee when he arrived."
Present Perfect Tense
This tense expresses the idea that something happened (or didn't happen) at an unspecific time in the past until the present. The action happened at an unspecified time in the past. ( if there's a specific time mentioned, the simple past tense is used.) It can be used for repeated action, accomplishments, changes over time, and uncompleted action.
Example:
"I have had enough to eat." (have had)
"We have been to Paris many times." (have been)
"I have known him for five years." (have known)
Present perfect progressive tense
this tense expresses the idea that something happened (or didn't happen) in the relatively recent past, but the action is not finished. It is used to express the duration of the action.
Example:
"We have been seeing a lot of rainy days." (have been seeing)
"I have been reading some very good books." (have been reading)
Present Progressive Tense
This tense is used to express what the action is right now. The action started in the recent past, and is continuing into the future.
Example:
"We are having a delicious lunch." (are having)
"They are driving much too fast." (are driving)
Simple Future Tense
this tense shows that the action will happen some time in the future. This tense is formed by using "will" plus the roof form of the verb
Example:
"I will see you tomorrow." (will see)
"We will drive the car." (will drive)
Past Perfect Progressive Tense
This tense is used to show that the action had been going on for a period of time in the past when another action, also in the past, occurred.
Example:
"I had been sleeping for an hour when you phoned." (had been sleeping)
"We had been eating our dinner when they came into the dining room." (had been eating)
Future Perfect Progressive Tense
this tense is used to show that the action continues up to a point of time in the future. This tense is formed by using the future perfect tense of "to be" plus the present participle of the main verb.
Example:
"I will have been working here for two years in March." (will have been working)
"I will have been driving for four hours when I get there, so I will be tired." ( will have been driving)
Future Perfect Tense
this tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. This is the past in the future.
Example:
"He will have prepared dinner when she arrives." (will have)
Future Progressive Tense
this tense talks about a continuing action in the future
- will + be + (root form) + ing = will be playing
Example:
"The teams will be playing soccer when we arrive." (will be playing)
Past Perfect Tense
this tense talks about two events that happened in the past and establishes which event happened first.
Example:
"The party had just started when the coach arrived." (had started)
"We had waited for twenty minutes when the bus finally came." (had waited)
May
"May" can act as the principle verb, which can express permission or possibility
"May your wishes come true."
"May you find favor in the sight of your employer."
Might
Might can be used to signify a weak or slim possibility or polite suggestion
"You might find him in his office, but I doubt it."
"You might offer to help if you want to."
Lie vs. Lay
laid, lay, lie, lain
"Lay on the bed."
"The tables were laid by the students."
"Let the little kid lie."
"The patient lay on the table."
"The dog has lain there for 30 minutes."
would
the past tense of will is would. Would is specially used in any of the three persons to signify willingness, determination and habitual action.
"They would go for a test run every Saturday."
Should
the past tense of shall is should. Should is used in three persons to signify obligation
"I should go after work."
"People should do exercises everyday."
Can vs. Could
is used to express capacity or ability. It can be used for permission as well.
"I can complete the assignment today."
Could is the past tense of can.
"Despite the difficulty of the test, he could still perform well."
ought
the verb ought is used for
-desirability
-probability
-moral obligation or duty

"She ought to be on her way back by now."
"You ought to wash your hands before eating"
"The government ought to be oppressed."
Rise
The verb ride means to go up or to ascend. The verb can appear as rose, rise, risen.
"The bird rose very slowly."
"The trees rise above the house."
"My aunt has risen in her career."
Raise
The verb raise means to increase, or lift up. It can appear as raised, raise, and raised.
"He raised his hands."
The workers requested a raise."
"Do not raise that subject."
shall vs. will
Will is used in the second or third person. Shall is used in the first person. Both verbs are used to express a time or even in the future.
"I shall" "We shall" first
"you shall"- second
"They will" third
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