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Arts and Humanities
History of Russia
AP Euro: The Russian Revolution
Terms in this set (38)
r. 1881-1894. Russian tsar who came to the throne in 1881 after his father was assassinated by radical socialists. He instituted a reactionary policy of "Russianification, orthodoxy, and autocracy"
Also known as the Cadets or Kadets, the party of the liberal bourgeoisie in Russia, aimed for parliamentary government and gradual reform.
Constructed during 1870s-1880s, railroad linking European and Asiatic Russia, built with French financial support. Made Russian more involved in Asia.
Also known as Narodniks, Slavophile party, directly opposed the Russian Duma and performed acts of terrorism, both political and agrarian, in order to get their points across. This broke off into the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903 composed of minority representation of the Russian Marxist Congress. Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. The Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
The Russo-Japanese War
1904-1905. Japan fights Russia for Manchuria (China) and wins, leaving Russia without a functioning navy. Secured Japan's railroad rights in Manchuria and its protectorate in Korea. Also led to Revolution of 1905.
The Revolution of 1905
1905-1907. A wave of political and social unrest that included worker strikes, rioting, military mutinies, etc. Instigating event: Bloody Sunday. Resulted in October Manifesto and national Duma.
January 22, 1905, St. Petersburg. Unarmed, peaceful protestors led by Father Gapon, walking to deliver a petition to Tsar Nicholas were fired upon by the Imperial Guard. This showed disregard for citizens by the state and unrest spread afterwards as part of the Revolution of 1905.
Commissioned by Tsar Nicholas II to help emancipated serfs adjust to their new lives, a Russian Orthodox priest who led an initially conservative workers union that eventually sought abolition of the tsarist regime. Led the Bloody Sunday march of over 200,000 on the Winter palace.
Following a great general strike called by the Soviet of Petersburg in October 1905, Tsar Nicholas II issued this to grant full civil liberties and promise a popularly elected duma (parliament) with real legislative power.
Provincial/local councils elected by landowners and peasants set up by Tsar Nicholas II in 1864 as part of his great reforms to handle civic matters.
Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms following the Revolution of 1905; did not include the Marxists who boycotted out of tsar distrust; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.
1869-1916. The Mad Monk, gained influence and power with Tsarina Alexandra because of his ability to predict the health of and cure her hemophiliac son Alexei, the only heir to the throne. His influence on the Romanov family reportedly led to his downfall.
The February/March Revolution
1917. Women-led food riots broke out in St Petersburg but when the tsar ordered the Duma to dissolve and the troops to enforce his order, no one obeyed. Workers and soldiers organized radical legislative bodies called Soviets and the rebellion spread throughout the country as troops deserted. The Tsar abdicated, ending the Romanov dynasty. The Provisional Government was an alliance between liberals and socialists who wanted political reform. They set up a democratically-elected executive and constituent assembly. Socialists also formed the Petrograd Soviet, which ruled alongside the Provisional Government, an arrangement termed Dual Power.
The October Revolution
1917. The October Revolution in Russia also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the overall Russian Revolution of 1917. The October Revolution overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to Bolsheviks. It was followed by the Russian Civil War (1917-1920) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.
The Dictatorship of the Proletariat
In Marxist socio-political thought, a socialist state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power.
October Revolution (Results)
1. Bolsheviks renamed Communists 2. Industries nationalized, 3. Russian Orthodox church lands seized, 4. Russia pulled out of WWII, 5. Private bank accounts confiscate and banks nationalized, 6. Wages fixed higher, workday fixed shorter, 7. Foreign debts denied.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1918 surrendering Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia (the Baltic states), Poland, and the Ukraine to Germany.
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Communist government against tsarists, the middle class, socialist factions etc (White Army). The Communists won because their enemies could not come together.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)
1922. The old empires's new organization uniting all of the formerly autonomous regions into a single cultural identity. Dissolved in 1991.
Five Year Plan (Russia, 1928)
Promoted rapid industrialization by centralized planning including coal and steel production, modern transportation, all using USSR resources.
Consolidated small farms into communes, modernizing agriculture but displacing many peasants. The kulaks, the most successful peasant farmers, were destroyed as a class; 5-12 million people died of murder and famine. The profits from this reorganization were used by the party to industrialize.
Five Year Plan (Russia, 1933)
Increased production of steel and industry to modernize Soviet factories, creating a boom while the West in the Great Depression, making Russia a leading industrial power.
The Purge Trials
also called The Great Purge, three widely publicized show trials and a series of closed, unpublicized trials held 1936-1938 and initiated by a paranoid Stalin, in which many prominent Old Bolsheviks were found guilty of treason and executed or imprisoned. 1 million executed, 5-7 million sent to labor camps. Stalin strengthened his party and became a powerful dictator.
Tsar Alexander II
r. 1861-1881. Emancipated the serfs, began process of emancipation in 1861, was assassinated in 1881 by radical socialists leaving his son Tsar Alexander III to rule conservatively.
Tsar Nicholas II
r. 1894-1917. Last tsar of Russia. Married to Alexandra, father of hemophiliac son Alexei. Lack of interest in ruling and support for relatives in England and Germany were his downfall.
1905-1911. Oversaw the creation of the Duma as prime minister to Nicholas II. His agrarian reforms were very unpopular and he was assassinated in 1911.
1917. Leader of the provisional government formed in March 1917 when Nicholas II abdicated. He and his popular Kadet (Socialist Democrat) Party fought for land reform while he kept the war going as a middle ground in contrast to the Bolsheviks who wanted to end the war then.
1914-1918. Important WWI general who stayed loyal to Karensky as his commander in chief. Led the White Army during the Russian Civil War, where he was killed.
1917-1924. Russian Bolshevik leader banished in 1903 but returned in 1917 and won the peoples' support with promises of "peace, land, and bread." Used the soviets and educated elites in each town to foment revolution among the masses, placing him in power of the USSR after the civil war.
1917-1924. Lenin's co-conspirator in the revolution and hero of the Red Army, issued Army Order Number 1 in which companies voted whether or not to follow commands. Took over the military and train stations during October Revolution that placed Lenin in power, made poor successor for Lenin because he was Jewish and intellectual, policy focused on worldwide revolution, was pushed out by Stalin and killed in Mexico.
1924-1953. Ruled the USSR with an iron fist, instituting 5-year plans to industrialize Russia while purging nation of supposed enemies. Ruined agricultural output causing famine and killed opponents freely, totaling about 50 million citizens. Rallied his people to defeat Germans during WWII. Lack of trust with the US and England led to the Cold War.
Prince Georgi Lvov
Prime Minister of the new provisional government in Russia, 1917, Minister of the interior, Leader of progressive liberals. Turned over provincial government to Kerensky.
In 1922, Lenin's anti-Russification efforts. Created a single USSR identity including all ethnic groups, gave smaller ethnic groups autonomous regions within major republics, allowed schools to teach native languages, encouraged cultural uniqueness.
Wealthy peasant farmer class who, after resisting Stalins' commune farming reorganization, were slaughtered by the millions.
International Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919 that intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."
Although Marx's theories required that a country be developed and capitalist before undergoing a socialist revolution, Lenin argued that a Marxist takeover of Russia would precipitate takeovers elsewhere in Europe and those in turn would help Russia bypass the capitalist stage.
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