55 terms

Topic 3 The Revolutionary Era

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French and Indian war
a war that took began in the Ohio Valley place from 1754 to 1763 that led to the end of French power in North America
George Washington
(1732-1799) was the commander of the American army in the Revolutionary War and later became the first President of the United States.
Albany Plan of Union
a proposal by Benjamin Franklin to create a single government for the 13 colonies to defeat the French
Plains of Abraham
a field near Quebec; after sneaking up a steep cliff in the middle of the night, the British defeated the French here the next morning and captured the city of Quebec
Treaty of Paris
a 1763 agreement between Britain and France that ended the French and Indian War and transferred much of North America from French to British control
Pontiac's War
The series of battles fought between Native American groups, led by Pontiac, and British colonists for control of the land western of Appalachian Mountains after the French and Indian war.
Stamp Act
An act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents and almanacs, playing cards and even dice
Proclamation of 1763
From the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
King George III
Ruler of England during the American Revolution
petition
A formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority
free enterprise system
economic system in which people start and run businesses with limited government intervention
boycott
A refusal to buy or use goods and services.
repealed
Cancelled In response to the colonial reaction British Government repealed the Stamp Act
Townshend Acts
A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
writs of assistance
It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that they violated their rights as British citizens.
Samuel Adams
American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence
John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the 1st vice president and 2nd President of the United States.
Patrick Henry
"Give me liberty or give me death"
"I know not what courses others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death" From a speech to the Virginia House of Delegates to convince them to support the fight for independence.
Crispus Attucks
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.
Boston Massacre
an incident in which British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists, killing five people that were protesting the Tea Act.
committee of correspondence
A 21 member group responsible for keeping the colonies and the rest of the world informed about the injustices Great Britain was making on her colonies.
Tea Act
1773 Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchant and led to the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
Demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
civil disobedience
the refusal to comply with certain laws or to pay taxes and fines, as a peaceful form of political protest.
Intolerable Acts
series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party
Passed series of measures including shutting down Boston Harbor and the Quartering Act, which allowed British commanders to house soldiers in vacant private homes and other buildings.
Quebec Act
Signed in 1774, intended to reorganize the way these British territories were governed
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Second governor of Virginia. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.
First Continental Congress
convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts; endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
militia
A citizen army
minutemen
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds
Battles of Lexington and Concord
initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston
Olive Branch Petition
An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll
asked for a cease-fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts, guarantee of American rights
Green Mountain Boys
Vermont colonial militia led by Ethan Allen that made a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga and won in 1775
Continental Army
official army of the colonies formed in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress and led by General George Washington
Patriots
Colonists who wanted independence from Britain
Loyalists
American colonists who were loyal to the British government
Battle of Bunker Hill
First major battle of the Revolutions in 1775. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
blockade
A military action to prevent traffic from coming into an area or leaving it used to isolate an enemy and cut off its supplies
mercenaries
Foreign soldiers who fought for money
Battle of Long Island
Battle where Patriots lost a lot of people, and became low on supplies. British victory.
Nathan Hale
"I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
Patriot hanged as a spy by the British in 1776.
Haym Salomon
Jewish American who helped finance the American Revolution
Battle of Trenton
Fought on Christmas day, first significant victory for the Continental Army after crossing the icy Delaware River
Battle of Saratoga
In 1777, the first major American victory in the revolution
allies
those who support each other for some common purpose
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
Friedrich von Steuben
Military officer from Germany who trained American soldiers during the American Revolution
cavalry
soldiers on horseback
Valley Forge
Site of the military camp where Washington's American Continental Army spent the winter of 1777-1778 during the American Revolutionary War. Lost 1/4 of men.
James Armistead
He was an African American spy for George Washington. The information that he collected helped the Americans win the battle at Yorktown
Wentworth Cheswell
Church leader, historian, and judge who fought at the Battle of Saratoga.1st African American elected to public office in America.
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At the time of the American Revolution he was African American "midnight rider " who rode though out Massachusetts warning colonist were coming. Fought at Battle of Saratoga
Bernardo de Galvez
governor of Spanish Louisiana, helped the Americans during the revolution by protecting New Orleans from the British and allowed the Americans to use the Mississippi river to ship supplies, once spain declared war on Britian, he helped capture a number of british towns
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) said " I have not yet begun to fight."
Battle of Cowpens
took place during January 1781 in South Carolina in cowpens; the British surrendered and the Americans won because of their formation; they got South Carolina
guerilla
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his/her country

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