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Terms in this set (61)
Normal level for WBC's
4,500 - 11,000
Normal lab values for Hbg male
Normal lab values for Hbg female
Normal lab values for Na
Normal lab values for K
Normal lab values for Cl
Normal lab values for HCO3
Normal BUN lab values
Normal Creatine lab values
0.6- 1.2 mg/dL
Normal Glucose lab values
Normal Calcium lab values
Normal total protein lab values
Normal Alb lab values
Normal total Bili
How many grams are in 1 oz
How many mL are in 1 oz
How many oz are in 1 cup?
How many liters are in 1 gallon?
What are normal values of pH for ABG
What are normal values of PaCO2?
What are normal values of PaO2?
What are normal values of HCO3
What are the steps in removing an artificial eye?
pull down the lower lip with index finger & exert slight pressure, allowing to slide over lower lid and grab with free hand
-store artificial eye in labeled container filled with tap water or saline
What are the steps in inserting an artificial eye?
lift upper and lower lid to insert and blink until sets
How do you wash an artificial eye?
Wash with warm, normal saline, with soft gauze or clean tap water
How do you properly irrigate an ear
-Have pt sit or lie on side with the affected ear UP.
-Using a bulb-irrigating syringe or Walter Pik set on No 2, gently wash ear with warm solution, directing flow toward the superior aspect of the ear canal.
Nonblanchable erythema indicates the skin has been damaged by what?
Explain what is happening in the S1 sound
"Lub" sound- tricuspid and mitral valves snap shut @ beginning of systole. It is loudest at the apex of the heart.
Explain what is happening in the S2 sound
"Dub" sound- Aortic and Pulmonic valves shut at beginning of diastole. This is heard best at the base of the <3
What does a split S2 mean?
Electrical conduction may be delayed on one side so ventricles might not close at the same time
- may sound like a "stutter"
S3 is heard in pt's with what?
CHF. It follows S2
S4 is heard in pt's with what?
HTN, CAD, MI.
What is a murmur?
occurs between S1 and S2. It should be silent there, but with a murmur there is a whooshing sound.....this typically happens if a valve isn't open wide enough (Stenotic) or if a valve doesn't close tightly enough and blood leaks back
Grade 1 murmurs are typically ____to hear
Grade 6 murmurs are typically ___ to hear
easy to hear
Grade 4 and above murmurs are considered____ and are accompanied by a _____
loud murmurs. palpable thrill
Pericardial friction rub
pericardium (membrane around the heart) becomes inflamed. It causes high pitched, scratchy sound. It is loaded at apex
What is the Valsalva maneuver?
holding breath and bearing down. Usually done to check for hernia's
When suctioning a trach, do you apply suction before or after insertion?Do you use a rotation method?
After insertion. Yes
Do not insert ____ ___ into artificial airway because it increases the risk of infection
insert artificial airway until ____
feel resistance or patient starts coughing.
If pt needs more suctioning, repeat procedure only ______ more times & wait at least ____ minute
To rinse catheter, use ________ mL of ________
5-10 mL. Normal saline
Elderly people and children need a _____ gauge for IV's
Every time access port you should _____
NEVER infuse _______
Change IV sites every ______
Change tubing every ______
Fluids should not hang more than _______
Infiltration in IV
Fluid goes into interstitial skin and pt's extremities look cool and swollen
inflammation of vein. Pt is red and warm near site
Signs and symptoms of fluid overload are___
SOB, crackles in lung, increased urine output
Steps for inserting an IV
-place pt in dependent position
-apply tourniquet above the antecubital fossa or approximately 4-6 inches from anticipated site
if pt has fragile skin or excessive hair, where do you place the tourniquet?
over sleeve of gown to protect skin
If a pt has fragile skin and the tourniquet is not available, use ________, Inflate just below pt's normal ____ _____.
blood pressure cuff. Diastolic pressure
If you are having trouble finding a well dilated vein, what do you do?
stroke the extremity below intended IV site from distal to proximal or place a warm blanket/towel over extremity for a couple of minutes. AVOID rubbing vigorously or flicking vein as it can cause vein to constrict or a hematoma
If pt is not receiving a continuous infusion, what do you initiate?
A saline lock.
Saline locks must be flushed with what and when?
They must be flushed with 1-3 mL of normal saline before and after you administer each medication
What do you clean site with prior to initiating IV access?
IV insertions on older adults
- Use tourniquet sparingly to avoid tearing or bruising of the skin
-be sure to pull skill below the insertion site taut to stabilize the vein
-use lower angle of insertion to avoid puncturing posterior wall of vein
-to secure, use minimal tape-use mesh dressing instead
used for pt's who have severe hyponatremia....cardiac or renal disease.
-pull fluid into vascular space by osmosis resulting in an increased vascular vL that can result in pulmonary edema,
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