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social psych E1 module 1-9
Terms in this set (66)
Disadvantage of correlation research
it provides ambiguous interpretations of cause and effect
dependent variable in Boyatzis' (1995) research study on the effects of television viewing on children
As a result of random assignment, the people in both groups of an experiment
more likely to average about the same in every way
advantage of using correlational designs instead of experimental designs
Correlations allow psychologists to investigate variables in natural settings
social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how people
think about, influence and relate to one another.
procedure used only if it is essential and justified
The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition
the variable the is manipulated /cause
A major requirement of the ethical principles of social-psychological research is that the researcher
protect participants from harm and significant discomfort
integrated set of principles that can explain and predict observed events
researcher's disclosing the true purpose of the study
Studies that seek clues to cause-effect relationships by manipulating one or more factors while controlling others
study of naturally occurring relationships among variables
The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, one's ability to have foreseen how something turned out
consequence of hindsight bias
attributing too much blame to decision makers for their stupid mistakes
mental templates by which we organize our worlds.
changed by education & persuasion
young people tend to separate from their parents in order to become more self-reliant
people have the greatest difficulty when they try to predict the _____ of their future emotions
duration & intensity
concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
After learning about another culture or religion, we begin to realize how prejudiced we have been toward this group and realize that we should change our attitude to a more positive one
the beliefs about one's self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
professions of love during lust are often
unanticipated when one is not sexually aroused
Verbalized, __________ attitudes may change with education and persuasion, but __________ attitudes change more slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
Assuming that everyone else is staring at the pimple on your chin is an example of
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors.
false uniqueness effect
The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's abilities and one's desirable or successful behaviors.
The tendency to perceive oneself favorably.
Drivers who have been hospitalized for accidents are
still likely to believe themselves to be safer and more skilled than the average driver.
We tend to ___________________________ the commonality of our negative behaviors and ___________________________ the commonality of our desirable behaviors.
siblings, friends, romantic partners.
Self-esteem threats can disrupt relationships when people become jealous of the successes or accomplishments of their
people see themselves as above average in intelligence, ethics, and attractiveness
People who do not exhibit self-serving bias may tend toward
example of unrealistic optimism
"I'm sure I'll get a great job when I graduate"
The hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
locus of control
The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces
A sense that one is competent and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, one's sense of self-worth. A bombardier might feel high self-efficacy and low self-esteem.
true about narcissism
Narcissists score highly on measures of self-esteem
example of external locus of control
Your best friend earned a grade of "F" on her latest physics exam, and believes it was because the professor wrote a very difficult exam.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior.
people are less likely to perceive others in terms of personal dispositions.
example of how often we forget about situational influences.
Inferring that Cinderella is truly meek as she cowers in her oppressive home is an
tend to underestimate the situational determinants of others' behavior but not our own because we observe others from a different perspective than we observe ourselves
A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
The tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs.
Thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious
Cases of blind sight, in which patients report seeing nothing, yet guess correctly what is in their visual field
Research on subliminal stimulation
people are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so
people in psychotherapy and self-improvement programs who showed only modest improvements claimed that they
experienced considerable change.
Thinking that is effortless, impulsive, and without awarenes
One reason people are overconfident is that they are not inclined to seek out information that _______
might disprove what they believe.
a cognitive rule that judges the likelihood of things in terms of their availability in memory. If instances of something come readily to mind, we presume it to be commonplace.
A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations
illusion of control
Perception of uncontrollable events as subject to one's control or as more controllable than they are.
Perception of a relationship where none exists, or perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists.
regression toward the average
The statistical tendency for extreme scores or extreme behavior to return toward one's average.
A belief that leads to its own fulfillment
A belief and feeling that can predispose our response to something or someone.
cognitive dissonance theory
Tension that arises when one is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions. For example, dissonance may occur when we realize that we have, with little justification, acted contrary to our attitudes or made a decision favoring one alternative despite reasons for favoring another
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
A tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it.
A set of norms that defines how people in a given social position ought to behave.
The theory that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us—by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs.
The tendency to seek information and media that agree with one's views and to avoid dissonant information
attitudes least likely to influence actions
When are attitudes do not match the majority opinion
Zimbardo's simulated prison demonstrated
the effects of role playing
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