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beginning of digestive tract; location where chewing occurs and where saliva mixes with the food
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
softens food in the mouth making it easier to swallow; helps break down food into simpler forms; secreted by glands in the mouth
stores food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue to break down the food; secretes strong acids and enzymes to assist in the breaking down process
larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
the largest section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and formation of feces; first, coiled part of large intestine
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated; straight, posterior part of large intestine
a blind pouch which forms at the junction of the small and large intestine; homologous to appendix in the human
valvelike muscle at lower end of rectum. The opening through which feces pass out of body
gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
one of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones
Tubes that carry the ovum from the ovary to the uterus; also called fallopian tubes or oviducts.
point where uterus & uterine tubes meet; connect body of uterus & ovaries; in the pig, fetus develops here
V-shaped structure formed by the joining of the two uterine horns; in the human, where the fetus develops in a human, NOT in the pig
in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body
in females, opening to urogenital sinus and found ventral to the anal opening; in males, small hole just posterior to the base of the umbilical cord; where genitalia are found
the collective name for the structures that form the external female genital area; protects female sexual organs, and stretches to accomodate childbirth
a thin, white cord that carries sperm out from the epididymis; loops over the ureter near attachment of ureter to urinary bladder and joins to the ureter on the dorsal wall
muscular tube running under the skin just posterior to the umbilical cord that runs from the base of the bladder to the urogenital opening; connects urethra to outside the body and used by the male during sexual intercourse
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by contracting (inhaling) and expanding (exhaling)
Gland located near the heart; produces several hormones which stimulate development of cells important in immmunity
endocrine gland located below the voice box; it produces hormones which control metabolism
The windpipe; tube leading from the larynx to the lungs; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system
two large respiratory organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and the rib cage; where blood picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide
Tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between the air and the blood; where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body; lies in center of chest between lungs
the chamber of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
the chamber of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery
blood vessel running diagonally down the ventral side of the heart from its upper left to lower right that supplies blood to the heart muscle; separates the two ventricles
The chamber of the heart, where deoxygenated blood is received from the vena cava and then sent to the right ventricle.
chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it to the left ventricle
large white vessel between the two atria that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs; breaks into two branches, one for each lung
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the tissues
In the fetus, this structure directs blood from the pulmonary artery into the aorta, thereby bypassing the lungs
Either of the veins formed by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins above the heart. Carries deoxygenated blood to right atrium of heart through the anterior vena cava
either of the veins on each side of the throat close to the larynx that drain blood from the head; medial to the external version of this vein
either of the veins on each side of the throat that drain blood from the face and jaws; lateral to the internal version of this vein
first branch leaving the aortic arch going anteriorly which divides into the carotid and subclavian arteries
part of the aorta the descends from the aortic arch through the thorax to the diaphragm
tiny branches of the thoracic aorta running parallel to each rib supplying blood to the intercostal muscles
either of the arteries on both sides of the urinary bladder that carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta
Connects the left and right atria, allowing blood to flow directly from the right to the left side of the heart that only exists in the fetus
region of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities including sensory, motor, emotional, and intellectual processes
controls several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.
part of the brain involved in sleep/wake cycles; also connects cerebellum and medulla to the cerebral cortex
brain structure that receives messages from the sense organs and relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
either of the nerves consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, heart, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from these structures to the brain
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