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Fetal Pig Structures and Functions

Structures of a fetal pig and the function of each.
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Mouth
beginning of digestive tract; location where chewing occurs and where saliva mixes with the food
Teeth
tear and chew food to help break it down
Tongue
manipulates food for chewing and swallowing; a taste organ
Epiglottis
The flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
Salivary Glands
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
Saliva
softens food in the mouth making it easier to swallow; helps break down food into simpler forms; secreted by glands in the mouth
Esophagus
muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
Stomach
stores food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue to break down the food; secretes strong acids and enzymes to assist in the breaking down process
Pyloric Valve
the sphincter regulating the flow of food from the stomach to the small intestine
Small Intestine
responsible for most chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients
Large Intestine
larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
Colon
the largest section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and formation of feces; first, coiled part of large intestine
Rectum
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated; straight, posterior part of large intestine
Caecum
a blind pouch which forms at the junction of the small and large intestine; homologous to appendix in the human
Spleen
Organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells
Anal Opening
valvelike muscle at lower end of rectum. The opening through which feces pass out of body
Liver
organ that makes bile to break down fats; also filters poisons and drugs out of the blood
Gall Bladder
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine
Pancreas
gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
Kidney
organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter
Ureter
either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
Urethra
Tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body
Ovary
one of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones
Uterine Tubes
Tubes that carry the ovum from the ovary to the uterus; also called fallopian tubes or oviducts.
Uterine Horns
point where uterus & uterine tubes meet; connect body of uterus & ovaries; in the pig, fetus develops here
Uterus
V-shaped structure formed by the joining of the two uterine horns; in the human, where the fetus develops in a human, NOT in the pig
Vagina
in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body
Urogenital Sinus
point where the vagina joins with the urethra
Urogenital Opening
in females, opening to urogenital sinus and found ventral to the anal opening; in males, small hole just posterior to the base of the umbilical cord; where genitalia are found
Vulva
the collective name for the structures that form the external female genital area; protects female sexual organs, and stretches to accomodate childbirth
Processus Vaginalis
elongated membranous sac that contains the testis
Testis
male reproductive organ that produces sperm and hormones
Epididymis
small, tightly coiled white tubes alongside the testis where sperm is stored
Ductus Deferens
a thin, white cord that carries sperm out from the epididymis; loops over the ureter near attachment of ureter to urinary bladder and joins to the ureter on the dorsal wall
Penis
muscular tube running under the skin just posterior to the umbilical cord that runs from the base of the bladder to the urogenital opening; connects urethra to outside the body and used by the male during sexual intercourse
Diaphragm
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by contracting (inhaling) and expanding (exhaling)
Thymus Gland
Gland located near the heart; produces several hormones which stimulate development of cells important in immmunity
Larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
Thyroid Gland
endocrine gland located below the voice box; it produces hormones which control metabolism
Trachea
The windpipe; tube leading from the larynx to the lungs; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system
Rings of Cartilage
help keep trachea open for the passage of air
Lungs
two large respiratory organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and the rib cage; where blood picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide
Bronchi
two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.
Alveoli
Tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between the air and the blood; where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Heart
multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body; lies in center of chest between lungs
Pericardium
a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
Left Ventricle
the chamber of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
Right Ventricle
the chamber of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery
Coronary Artery
blood vessel running diagonally down the ventral side of the heart from its upper left to lower right that supplies blood to the heart muscle; separates the two ventricles
Right Atrium
The chamber of the heart, where deoxygenated blood is received from the vena cava and then sent to the right ventricle.
Left Atrium
chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it to the left ventricle
Pulmonary Artery
large white vessel between the two atria that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs; breaks into two branches, one for each lung
Aorta
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the tissues
Aortic Arch
a curved blood vessel from which arteries branch to the head and neck.
Ductus Arteriosis
In the fetus, this structure directs blood from the pulmonary artery into the aorta, thereby bypassing the lungs
Anterior Vena Cava
carries oxygen poor blood from upper part of the body into the right atrum
Inferior Vena Cava
brings oxygen poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium
Pulmonary Vein
vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart
Brachiocephalic Vein
Either of the veins formed by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins above the heart. Carries deoxygenated blood to right atrium of heart through the anterior vena cava
Subclavian Vein
either of the two veins that returns blood from the arms to the heart
Internal Jugular
either of the veins on each side of the throat close to the larynx that drain blood from the head; medial to the external version of this vein
External Jugular
either of the veins on each side of the throat that drain blood from the face and jaws; lateral to the internal version of this vein
Renal Vein
blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney to the inferior vena cava
Iliac Vein
blood vessel that drains blood from the legs and carries it to the inferior vena cava
Umbilical Vein
delivers oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus
Brachiocephalic Artery
first branch leaving the aortic arch going anteriorly which divides into the carotid and subclavian arteries
Carotid Artery
artery on each side of the neck that supplies blood to the head
Subclavian Artery
either of the arteries that carry blood into the arms
Thoracic Aorta
part of the aorta the descends from the aortic arch through the thorax to the diaphragm
Intercostal Artery
tiny branches of the thoracic aorta running parallel to each rib supplying blood to the intercostal muscles
Abdominal Aorta
continuation of the thoracic aorta that runs through the abdominal cavity
Renal Artery
either of the arteries carrying blood to the kidneys from the abdominal aorta
Iliac Artery
either of the arteries carrying blood to the legs from the abdominal aorta
Umbilical Artery
either of the arteries on both sides of the urinary bladder that carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta
Foramen Ovale
Connects the left and right atria, allowing blood to flow directly from the right to the left side of the heart that only exists in the fetus
Cerebrum
region of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities including sensory, motor, emotional, and intellectual processes
Cerebellum
region of the brain that coordinates and balances body movement
Olfactory Bulb
the first brain structure to pick up smell information from the nose
Medulla Oblongata
controls several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.
Pons
part of the brain involved in sleep/wake cycles; also connects cerebellum and medulla to the cerebral cortex
Thalamus
brain structure that receives messages from the sense organs and relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing
Spinal Cord
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
Phrenic Nerve
Carries impulses to the diaphragm from the brain.
Vagus Nerve
either of the nerves consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, heart, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from these structures to the brain
Sympathetic Trunk
nerve running along each side of the vertebral column
Brachial Plexus
network of interlacing nerves found in the upper arm area
Meninges
three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped
Mammary Glands
glands on ventral surface that produce milk
Pharynx
tube-like structure that connects oral and nasal cavities to the larynx; provides passageway for respiratory and digestive tracts