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Structures of a fetal pig and the function of each.


beginning of digestive tract; location where chewing occurs and where saliva mixes with the food


tear and chew food to help break it down


manipulates food for chewing and swallowing; a taste organ


The flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.

Salivary Glands

three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands


softens food in the mouth making it easier to swallow; helps break down food into simpler forms; secreted by glands in the mouth


muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach


stores food while it is being mixed with enzymes that continue to break down the food; secretes strong acids and enzymes to assist in the breaking down process

Pyloric Valve

the sphincter regulating the flow of food from the stomach to the small intestine

Small Intestine

responsible for most chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients

Large Intestine

larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation


the largest section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and formation of feces; first, coiled part of large intestine


A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated; straight, posterior part of large intestine


a blind pouch which forms at the junction of the small and large intestine; homologous to appendix in the human


Organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells

Anal Opening

valvelike muscle at lower end of rectum. The opening through which feces pass out of body


organ that makes bile to break down fats; also filters poisons and drugs out of the blood

Gall Bladder

An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine


gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid


organ that removes urea, excess water, and other waste products from the blood and passes them to the ureter


either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

Urinary Bladder

saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted


Tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body


one of two glands located on each side of the pelvic cavity that produce ova and female sex hormones

Uterine Tubes

Tubes that carry the ovum from the ovary to the uterus; also called fallopian tubes or oviducts.

Uterine Horns

point where uterus & uterine tubes meet; connect body of uterus & ovaries; in the pig, fetus develops here


V-shaped structure formed by the joining of the two uterine horns; in the human, where the fetus develops in a human, NOT in the pig


in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body

Urogenital Sinus

point where the vagina joins with the urethra

Urogenital Opening

in females, opening to urogenital sinus and found ventral to the anal opening; in males, small hole just posterior to the base of the umbilical cord; where genitalia are found


the collective name for the structures that form the external female genital area; protects female sexual organs, and stretches to accomodate childbirth

Processus Vaginalis

elongated membranous sac that contains the testis


male reproductive organ that produces sperm and hormones


small, tightly coiled white tubes alongside the testis where sperm is stored

Ductus Deferens

a thin, white cord that carries sperm out from the epididymis; loops over the ureter near attachment of ureter to urinary bladder and joins to the ureter on the dorsal wall


muscular tube running under the skin just posterior to the umbilical cord that runs from the base of the bladder to the urogenital opening; connects urethra to outside the body and used by the male during sexual intercourse


muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by contracting (inhaling) and expanding (exhaling)

Thymus Gland

Gland located near the heart; produces several hormones which stimulate development of cells important in immmunity


voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

Thyroid Gland

endocrine gland located below the voice box; it produces hormones which control metabolism


The windpipe; tube leading from the larynx to the lungs; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system

Rings of Cartilage

help keep trachea open for the passage of air


two large respiratory organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and the rib cage; where blood picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide


two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.


Tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between the air and the blood; where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place


multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body; lies in center of chest between lungs


a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart

Left Ventricle

the chamber of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta

Right Ventricle

the chamber of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery

Coronary Artery

blood vessel running diagonally down the ventral side of the heart from its upper left to lower right that supplies blood to the heart muscle; separates the two ventricles

Right Atrium

The chamber of the heart, where deoxygenated blood is received from the vena cava and then sent to the right ventricle.

Left Atrium

chamber that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it to the left ventricle

Pulmonary Artery

large white vessel between the two atria that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs; breaks into two branches, one for each lung


The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the tissues

Aortic Arch

a curved blood vessel from which arteries branch to the head and neck.

Ductus Arteriosis

In the fetus, this structure directs blood from the pulmonary artery into the aorta, thereby bypassing the lungs

Anterior Vena Cava

carries oxygen poor blood from upper part of the body into the right atrum

Inferior Vena Cava

brings oxygen poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium

Pulmonary Vein

vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart

Brachiocephalic Vein

Either of the veins formed by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins above the heart. Carries deoxygenated blood to right atrium of heart through the anterior vena cava

Subclavian Vein

either of the two veins that returns blood from the arms to the heart

Internal Jugular

either of the veins on each side of the throat close to the larynx that drain blood from the head; medial to the external version of this vein

External Jugular

either of the veins on each side of the throat that drain blood from the face and jaws; lateral to the internal version of this vein

Renal Vein

blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney to the inferior vena cava

Iliac Vein

blood vessel that drains blood from the legs and carries it to the inferior vena cava

Umbilical Vein

delivers oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus

Brachiocephalic Artery

first branch leaving the aortic arch going anteriorly which divides into the carotid and subclavian arteries

Carotid Artery

artery on each side of the neck that supplies blood to the head

Subclavian Artery

either of the arteries that carry blood into the arms

Thoracic Aorta

part of the aorta the descends from the aortic arch through the thorax to the diaphragm

Intercostal Artery

tiny branches of the thoracic aorta running parallel to each rib supplying blood to the intercostal muscles

Abdominal Aorta

continuation of the thoracic aorta that runs through the abdominal cavity

Renal Artery

either of the arteries carrying blood to the kidneys from the abdominal aorta

Iliac Artery

either of the arteries carrying blood to the legs from the abdominal aorta

Umbilical Artery

either of the arteries on both sides of the urinary bladder that carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta

Foramen Ovale

Connects the left and right atria, allowing blood to flow directly from the right to the left side of the heart that only exists in the fetus


region of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities including sensory, motor, emotional, and intellectual processes


region of the brain that coordinates and balances body movement

Olfactory Bulb

the first brain structure to pick up smell information from the nose

Medulla Oblongata

controls several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.


part of the brain involved in sleep/wake cycles; also connects cerebellum and medulla to the cerebral cortex


brain structure that receives messages from the sense organs and relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum for further processing

Spinal Cord

a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain

Phrenic Nerve

Carries impulses to the diaphragm from the brain.

Vagus Nerve

either of the nerves consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, heart, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from these structures to the brain

Sympathetic Trunk

nerve running along each side of the vertebral column

Brachial Plexus

network of interlacing nerves found in the upper arm area


three layers of connective tissue in which the brain and spinal cord are wrapped

Mammary Glands

glands on ventral surface that produce milk


tube-like structure that connects oral and nasal cavities to the larynx; provides passageway for respiratory and digestive tracts

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