55 terms

Global Issues Environmental Issues Test

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commons
Land designated for use by the entire community.
Chernobyl
Soviet nuclear power plant that suffered a meltdown in 1986.
environmental security
A concept placing protection of the environment on equal ground with national security.
Mesopotamia
An ancient civilization between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, now known as Iraq.
John Evelyn
Naturalist who criticized London for its high levels of pollution.
Silent Spring
A book that focused on the negative effects of pesticides.
Torrey Canyon
Oil tanker that crashed off the coast of England in 1967.
Biosphere Conference
Held in 1968; focused on the degradation of the environment from human activities.
UN Conference on the Human Environment
Held in 1972; aimed at international cooperation in environmental protections.
World Summit on Sustainable Development
Focused simultaneously on economic growth and environmental protections.
Green Belt Movement
Kenyan movement focusing on preventing further deforestation.
regimes
Rules for governing state and nonstate actors.
biodiversity
The large number and diversity of organisms on Earth.
Convention on Biological Diversity
Designed to establish an international regime to protect biodiversity.
North/South Divide
Refers to the large economic divide between many Northern and Southern states.
IWC
Established to protect the price of whale oil.
CITES
Convention prohibiting trade in whale products.
IATTC
Commission devoted to protecting dolphins, among other things.
Congo Basin
Tropical area in central Africa.
Chiapas
The poorest state in Mexico
selective logging
Cutting specific trees in order to promote forest sustainability.
infrastructure
Necessary elements of a stable society.
commercial logging
Process disrupting sustainable development.
Plan for National Integration
Brazil's efforts to encourage the development of the Amazon.
Nossa Natureza Program
Designed to reduce the destruction of the Amazon.
IBAMA
Brazilian environmental protection agency.
Gabon's Lope Reserve
Area in Gabon containing rich biodiversity.
forest certification
Required in order to protect against deforestation.
Forest Stewardship Council
Group of environmentalists and lumber companies dedicated to protecting forests.
exclusive economic zones
Coastal waters exclusive to each state.
Law of the Sea Treaty
Recognizes state rights over territorial coastal waters.
IPMFC
FAO plan to reduce overcapacity in the fishing industry.
Exxon Valdez
Oil tanker that spilled off the coast of Alaska.
Charles Darwin
The leading proponent of evolution theory.
natural selection
A prevalent theory regarding the evolution of plant and animal species.
ICPS
First international agreement aimed at reducing ocean pollution.
ICPPS
Limited the discharge amounts of land and sea pollutants.
Mount Pinatubo
Erupted in the Philippines in 1991.
greenhouse effect
Rise in Earth's temperature from greenhouse gases.
USGCRP
Established to study ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect.
acid rain
Toxic rain caused by industrial activities.
ozone layer
Layer of atmosphere blocking UV radiation.
CFCs
Synthetic products causing ozone depletion.
Kyoto Protocol
International agreement on reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
emissions trading
Trading of greenhouse gases to reduce climate change.
Chicago Climate Exchange
Attempts to decrease greenhouse gases through a market approach.
water security
A lack of secure, uninterrupted, long-term availability of adequate clean freshwater.
Agent Orange
Highly toxic defoliant used by the United States in the Vietnam War.
environmental security program
Pentagon environmental program.
South Pacific Nuclear Weapon Free Zone
Created in 1985 to reduce risk of nuclear contamination.
Ottawa Treaty
Addressed the danger of land mines.
The implementation of and compliance with environmental agreements are influenced by which four factors?
1. Nature of the substance or activities that are regulated.
2. The characteristics of the agreement.
3. Global environment.
4. Domestic factors.
What are the three main arguments about the connection between women and the environment?
1. Women are disproportionally disadvantages by the environmental problems.
2. Gender bias is an impediment to achieving sustainable development.
3. Women's participation is vital to efforts to achieve sustainable development.
10 facts of deforestation
1. Each year forests as large as Panama are lost.
2. In 100 years there could be no more rainforest.
3. We're losing an area of forest as large as 20 football fields every minute.
4. Agriculture is the main cause of deforestation.
5. Deforestation is speeding up global warming.
6. Deforestation is often accomplished through burning.
7. You cant replant an ecology.
8. More than half of the timber and paper in the world are used by 22% of the population.
9. Up to 28,000 species may go extinct due to deforestation in the next quarter century.
10. Without trees human life would not survive.
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