71 terms

Bio 163; Final Exam, PART 1

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False
T or F; Active mechanisms of movement of materials across the membrane do not require cellular energy
shelter
Life does not depend on the availability of which of the following:
a. water
b. shelter
c. nutrients
d. shelter
False
T or F; The cardiovascular system and the endocrine system function for intergration and coordination
positive feedback
A control mechanism that responds to a stimulus by encouraging its intensity
a. negative feedback
b. positive feedback
c. neutralizing feedback
d. threshold feedback
telephase
nuclear membranes start to form around each group of chromosomes. Chromosomes start to loosen into chromatins. The genetic information has divided equally into two new cells.
anaphase
Spindle fibers contract and pull apart the duplicated chromosome to opposite ends of the cell
prophase
nuclear membrane fragements, duplicating centrioles migrating away from each other, duplicated chromatins condense into duplicated chromosomes
metaphase
nuclear membrane dissolves, duplicated chromosomes align at the equator of the cell, centrioles are at opposite ends of the cell with microtubules called spindle fiber radiate from the centrioles to connect to each half of the chromosome
growth
increase in size without change in shape
digestion
breakdown in foods into smaller forms to be used by the body
responsiveness
ability to reaction to a change or stimulus
absorbtion
movement of a substance through a membrane and into bodily fluids
assimulation
changing nutrients into chemically different forms
excretion
removal of metabolic wastes
reproduction
new generation of organisms and cells
circulation
movement of substances within body fluids
movement
internal and external change in position
respiration
use of oxygen and removal of metabolic wastes; carbon dioxide and releasing energy from foods
protein
What building block is associated with the organic compound amino acid
carbohydrates
What building block is associated with the organic compound monosaccharide
lipids
What building block is associated with the organic compound glyceral backbone, fatty acids, phospholipids
nucleic acids
What building block is associated with the organic compound nucleotide
it allows water-soluable molecules to pass through easily
Which of the following is NOT true about the plasma membrane:
a. its framework is made up of lipids
b. it allows water-soluable molecules to pass through easily
c. it contains proteins for specialized functions
d. it regulates the entry and exit of materials
False
Without ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum ER is smooth ER and functions in protein synthesis
tissues
groups of similar cells functioning together
a. atoms
b. organs
c. tissues
d. organ systems
golgi apparatus
composed of flattened sacs and refines, packages, modifies and delivers substances such as proteins
a. mitochondria
b. centrioles
c. perioxisomes
d. golgi apparatus
carbon dioxide
What waste product will be released into the air during exhalation
inorganic salts
How can electrolytes, acids and bases best be described
oxygen
What releases energy from nutrients to drive metabolism
water
What absorbs and transfers heat
organ system
groups of organs functioning together for a common goal
pinocytosis
cells drinking
excretion
removal of wastes produced from metabolic reactions
molecule
two or more similar atoms or structures combine
bases
electrolytes that release hydroxide atoms in water
hypotonic solution
solution with a lower osmotic pressure than body fluids
cation
atom that looses an electron
filtration
movement of materials through a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure
water
an example of inorganic compounds is
a. water
b. phospholipids
c. hemoglobin
d. monosaccharides
primary
What is the structural level of protein; specific sequence of amino acids
quaternary
What is the structural level of protein; specific way and location that one protein binds to another protein
secondary
What is the structural level of protein; helix or pleated pattern of the protein
tertiary
What is the structural level of protein; specific way that the protein bends and folds on itself
False
T or F; inorganic compounds are compounds that contain both carbon and oxygen
nucleolus
The site where ribosomes assemble before migrating into cytoplasm
a. nuclear membrane
b. nucleolus
c. endoplasmic reticulum
d. plasma membrane
exchange reaction
AB + CD yields, or produces AD + BC
true
The body can be divided into two major portions, the appendicular portion and the axial portion
nucleotides
building blocks of nucleic acids are
a. amino acids
b. nucleotides
c. fatty acids
d. monosacharides
true
T or F; tertiary level of structures of proteins describes how a protein bends and folds upon itself
positive feedback
positive or negative feedback:encourages the stimulus or change until a short term goal is achieved
negative feedback
positive or negative feedback: discourages the stimulus or change immediately
negative feedback
positive or negative feedback: body temperature regulation
positive feedback
positive or negative feedback: childbirth process
apoptosis
form of a cell death that is a normal part of development:
a. apoptosis
b. mitosis
c. cytokenisis
d. cell differentiation
atomic number
the number of protons
a.molecular structure
b. atomic weight
c. atomic number
d. molecular formula
thoracic cavity
the heart is contained in which cavity
hemeostasis
maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment
cytosine
which of the following is an organic base
a. aldosterone
b. cytosine
c. cortisole
d. albumin
effectors
hemeostasis is regulated through control systems which consists of
a. effectors
b. muscles
c. hormones
facilitated diffusion
diffusion in which materials move an area of greater concentration across a selectively permeable membrane to an area of lower concentration through the aid of channels or carriers
a. facilitated diffusion
b. osmosis
c. filtration
d. active transport
false
T or F. membranes within cavities are called viscera
osmosis
which of the following is NOT an example of active mechanisms of movement through the cell membrane
a. endocytosis
b. osmosis
c. exocytosis
d. phagocytosis
cell differentiation
stage of cell life cycle when certain DNA cues will allow the cells to become specialized
apoptosis
stage of cell life cycle when cell concludes with normal cell death
Interphase
stage of cell life cycle where normal growth, metabolism, and DNA synthesis occurs
mitosis
stage of cell life cycle that involves all the events for nuclear division
cytokinesis
stage of cell life cycle that involves cytoplasmic division
mechanical energy
energy that is directly involved in cellular work
prophase
stage of mitosis that the nuclear membrane fragements and disapperars and duplicated chromatins are visible as chromosomes
superior
A body part that is positioned above another body part
decomposition
AB yields or produces A + B
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