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EDF3110 Chapter Three
Terms in this set (117)
How does conception occur?
- Sperm and ovum unite
- Ovum releases from ovaries once every 28 days; survives one day
- Sperm live in fallopian tube for up to six days
- Most conceptions occur on day of ovulation or two days preceding it
- Fertilization and implantation
- Start of placenta
Germinal (2 weeks)
Groundwork laid for all body structures and internal organs
Embryonic (6 weeks)
"Growth and finishing" phase
Fetal (30 weeks)
- Fertilization and formation of the zygote
- Implantation of the blastocyst
What is is developed in the germinal period?
Feeding and protective structures
What are examples of feeding and protective structures?
- Yolk sac
- Umbilical cord
Most rapid prenatal changes occur
- Weeks 3-8
What is developed in the embryonic period?
Central nervous system, internal organs, muscles, and skeleton begins to form
What other actions occur in the embryonic period?
- Heart begins pumping blood
- Neurons develop rapidly
What external features form in the embryonic period?
Eyes, ears, nose, and limbs
Week 9 to the end of pregnancy
What happens in the first trimester?
- Organs, muscles, and nervous system organize
- Lungs begin to expand and contract
- Sex of fetus visible
What happens in the second trimester?
- Active fetus; mother can feel movement
- Neurons rapidly form synapses
- Sensitivity to sound and light emerges
What occurs in the third trimester?
- Extensive body growth
- Rapid gains in neural connectivity and organization
- Beginnings of personality
- Greater responsiveness to external stimulation
Age of viability: 22-26 weeks
Environmental agents that cause damage during the prenatal period
The teratogen effects depend on:
- Presence of other negative factors
- Age and prenatal sensitive periods
What can delayed health effects may show up when?
What are examples of teratogenic drug substances?
What are other teratogenic substances?
- Radiation and environmental pollution
- Infectious diseases
What are common prescription and nonprescription drugs?
- Isotretinoin (acne treatment)
What are common illegal drugs?
- Cocaine, heroin, and methadone
- Other high-risk behaviors
What percentage of women smoke while pregnant?
What is the best-known effect for smoking tobacco?
Low birth weight
Smoking tobacco also increases what?
- Risk of miscarriage
- Premature birth
- Long-term attention
- Learning and behavioral problems
True or False:
Second-hand exposure also increases risk
Range of outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
What are the kinds of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?
- Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
- Partial fetal alcohol syndrome (p-FAS)
- Alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorder (ARND)
What are the consequences for the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?
- Slow physical growth
- Facial abnormalities
- Mental impairment
Even low-level exposure is harmful
Many babies are "born polluted"
What can radiation and environmental pollution cause?
Variety of physical defects and cognitive impairments, and increase chances of later illnesses
Can cause extensive damage and threat is greatest during embryonic period
What are the kinds of infectious diseases?
- Bacterial and parasitic diseases
What are examples of bacterial diseases?
Chlamydia, syphilis, tuberculosis
What are examples of parasitic diseases?
What are examples of viruses?
Rubella, chickenpox, mumps, HIV/AIDS, herpes simplex 2
What are other maternal factors?
- Emotional stress
- Rh factor incompatibility
- Maternal age
- Previous births
What is the appropriate weight gain for a healthy pregnancy?
25 to 30 pounds
Prenatal malnutrition can:
- Damage organs and central nervous system
- Increase chances of later illness and disease
What are crucial vitamin-mineral enrichment processes?
Folic acid supplementation
What are results of emotional stress?
It deprives the fetus of oxygen and nutrients
What do stress hormones do?
Cross the placenta, using a dramatic rise in fetal stress hormones
Emotional stress is associated with?
Negative behavioral outcomes in children and youth and risk of later-life diseases
What reduces emotional stress?
Mothers in nurse-family partnership programs experience:
- Fewer subsequent births
- More contact with child's father, more stable relationships
- Less welfare dependence
How does the nurse-family partnership program benefit to children:
- Higher language and intelligence scores
- Fewer behavior problems, and less teenage substanceabuse
What is the importance of prenatal care?
- Monitor general health, and growth of fetus
- Treat complications
What are the consequences for lack of prenatal care?
Linked to greater likelihood for low birth weight and fetal death
What are the stages of childbirth?
- Dilation and effacement of the cervix
- Delivery of the baby
- Delivery of the placenta
Infant cortisol and other stress hormones help with?
- Help baby withstand oxygen deprivation
- Helps prepare baby to breathe
Quickly assesses newborn's physical condition?
The Apgar scale?
What are the physical conditions of the Apgar scale?
- Heart rate
- Respiratory effort
- Reflex irritability
- Muscle tone
What does the ratings scale explain?
7 or higher: Good physical condition
4-6: Baby needs assistance
3 or below: Serious danger, requires emergency medical attention
What are techniques to reduce pain and medical intervention?
- Relaxation and breathing techniques
- Labor coach
What are examples of labor coach?
- Trained doula
What are the benefits of having social support/doula?
- Shorter labors
- Fewer birth complications
- Reduced need for medication
- Higher Apgar scores
Often handled by certified nurse-midwives
Well-trained attendants necessary to recognize and handle emergencies
If home deliveries are at risk for complication what should they do?
Should deliver at the hospital
Inadequate oxygen supply
May compress umbilical cord
What are medical interventions for pregnancies?
- Fetal monitoring
- Labor and delivery medication
Epidural most common
What are common labor and delivery medications?
Once rare, now 33 percent of deliveries
Born early by three weeks or more, or weighing less than 5.5 pounds
Best predictor of infant survival and healthy development
What are the characteristics for pre-term infants?
- Born weeks before their due date
- Smaller weight may be appropriate for length of pregnancy
- 1 to 2 more weeks in womb greatly reduces rates of illness
What are the characteristics for small-for-date infants?
- Below expected weight considering length of pregnancy
- May be full-term or pre-term
- Inadequate nutrition before birth
- Usually more serious problems, especially if also preterm
What are interventions for pre-term infants?
- Temperature-controlled isolette
- Feeding tube, respirator
- Special stimulations
- Parent training in caregiving
- Long-term, intensive intervention if needed
What are examples for special stimulation?
- Gentle rocking
- Auditory stimulation
- Touch, kangaroo care
Number of deaths in the first year of life per 1,000 live births
U.S. ranks what in infant mortality?
Death rate within first month of life
What is the second highest contributor to neonatal mortality?
Low birth weight
What are prevention efforts to prevent these mortalities to happen?
- Good nutrition
- High-quality medical care
- Social and economic supports
- Paid, job-protected employment leave
What are the newborn reflexes?
- Evoking interaction from caregivers
- Motor development
What is the purpose for newborn reflexes?
Tested to reveal health of a baby's nervous system
Protects infant from stimulation
Infant's head turns toward source of stimulation; helps infant find the nipple
An "embracing" motion; in evolutionary past, may have helped infant cling to mother
Infant grasps finger; prepares infant for voluntary grasping
Prepares infant for voluntary walking
Infant lies in a "fencing position"; may prepare infant for voluntary reaching
Toes fan out and curl as foot twists in when sole of foot is stroked; function unknown
What are infant states of arousal?
- REM sleep
- NREM sleep
- Quiet alertness
- Walking activity and crying
- Brain-wave activity similar to waking state
- Newborns spend more time in REM than ever again
- Believed to support nervous system development
Body is almost motionless
What is the importance of REM and NREM sleep?
Can help identify CNS abnormalities
Unique vocal "signature", usually due to physical needs
What are common soothing techniques?
- Talking softly or rhythmic sounds
- Massage or swaddle
- Hold on shoulder and rock or walk
- Ride in carriage, car, swing
Leading cause of infant mortality in industrialized nations
Victims of SIDS often show what?
- Early problems
How can one reduce the incidence of SIDS?
- Quit smoking and drug use
- Place infants to sleep on their backs
- Use pacifier
- Provide firm sleep surface, eliminate soft bedding
Well-developed at birth
Sense of touch
Stimulates early physical growth, and vital for emotional development; used to investigate their world
What are ways to reduce the sense of touch?
- Sugar solution
- Breast milk
- Touch ease pain
Preferences present at birth are key for survival
Taste and smell
Babies prefer what flavor of food?
Sweet tastes and breast milk over formula
What influences newborn's preferences?
Taste and smell can locate what?
Odors and identify mother
Can hear wide variety of sound patterns
Sense of hearing
Newborns prefer what kind of sounds?
Complex sounds to pure tones
Can babies distinguish sound patterns at only few days old?
Babies are sensitive to?
- Mother's voice
- Human speech
- Biologically prepared to learn language
Least-developed sense at birth; unable to see long distances or focus clearly
When does color vision becomes adult like?
Babies prefer what colors?
Bright over gray, but does not discriminate colors
Evaluates newborn's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes responsiveness to physical and social stimuli?
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)
Similar instrument designed for at-risk newborns
Mothers need what hormones for hormonal changes?
What hormones do fathers need?
Rise in prolactin and estrogens, drop in androgens
What hormones do foster and adoptive mothers release?
Holding and interacting with infant releases oxytocin
What are the challenges of early weeks?
- New roles
- Changed schedule
- Sleep deprivation
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