AP Psychology Chapter 3 Brain/Behavior

Neuron fibers that recieve messagea from other neurons. They look pile tree roots
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The axon membrane is pierced by tiny tunnels or "holes" called what?Ion channelsThe axons of some neurons are coated with a fatty layer called ___.MyelinWhen the ____ layer is damaged, people may suffer from numbness, weakness, or paralysisMyelin layerWhen an action potential reaches the tip of the axon terminals,___ are released into the synaptic gap. They are chemicals that alter activity in neuronsNeurotransmittersAreas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormonesReceptor sitesSubtle brain activities are affected by chemicals called what?neuropeptidesThe neuropeptides enkephalins do what?Relieve stress and pressureThe neuropeptides called endorphins are released by what?Pituitary glandThese are interlinked collections of neurons, that process information in our brains.Neural networksThe term ___ refers to the capacity of our brain to change in response to experienceNeuroplasticityWhich system contains the brain and spinal cordCentral nervous systemThe brain communicates to the rest of the body through a cable called the what?Spinal cord____ are large bundles of many neuron axonsNervesThe axons of most neurons in nerves outside the brain and spinal cord are covered by a thin layer of cells called the ____.NeurilemmaThe ____ system carries messages to and from the sense organs and skeletal muscles. It basically controls voluntary actionSomatic nervous systemToo much dopamine may cause what?SchizophreniaToo little serotonin may cause what?DepressionThe ___ system serves the internal organs and glandsAutonomic nervous systemThe autonomic nervous system divides into the ____ and ____ branch.Sympathetic and parasympathetic branchThis branch triggers "fight or flight"Sympathetic branchThis branch quiets the body and returns it to a lower level of arousalParasympathetic branch31 pairs of ____ carry sensor and motor messages to and from the spinal cordSpinal nerves12 pairs of ____ nerves leave the brain directly without passing through the spinal cord.Cranial nervesA ___ occurs when a stimulus provokes an automatic responseReflex arkWhich type of neuron carries messages from the senses towards the CNS and brain?Sensory neuronsWhich type of neuron carries commands from the CNS to muscles and glands?Motor neuronsNeurogenesisProduction of new brain cellsThe microscopic space between two neurons where messages are sent is called the what?SynapseWhy carries messages to and from the CNS?Peripheral nervous systemWhat makes up the peripheral nervous systemSomatic and autonomic nervous systemThe sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system are divisions of what?Autonomic nervous systemHormones are related to what?NeurotransmittersThe pituitary glands most important role is to what?Regulate growth____ is the hormone that's most involved with happinessOxytocinThe master gland is what?Pituitary glandThe pituitary gland is directed by what?HypothalamusWithout this, you would feel little to no emotionsAutonomic nervous systemThe pineal gland is important because it releases a hormone called what?MelatoninThe part of the brain that contains 70% of neurons is the what?Cerebral cortexThis part of the brain is responsible to use language, make tools, live in complex social groups and acquire complex skilsCerebral cortexThe ____ is the band of fibers that are joined by the two hemispheres of the brainCorpus callosumWho was the person that discovered the left and right hemispheres perform different tasksRoger SperryThe ____ lobe controls our movementFrontalThe ____ lobe governs our bodily sensations such as touch or temperatureParietalThe ___ lobe is responsible for hearing functionsTemporalThe ___ lobe is responsible for our visual functionsOccipitalThis part of the brain stem: -is the bulge low in the brain stem -regulates basic body functions such as breathing, blood pressure, heart rate -operates without conscious awarenessMedullaThis part of the brain stem: -sits above the medulla -helps relay signals to the cerebellum that deal with sleep, respiration, swallowing, hearing, taste -acts as a bridge between the medulla and other brain areasPonsThis part of the brain stem: -is pencil shaped bundle of nerve cells that form the brain stems core -job is to keep the brain awake and alert -responsible for monitoring incoming sensoryReticular formationThis part of the brain stem: -located at the very top of the brain stem -directs all sensory information to the cerebral cortexThalamusThis part of the brain stem: -sometimes referred to as the "little brain" -sits at the back of the brain stem -coordinates with the brain stem and higher parts of the brain to control complex movement such as walking or dancing -controls basic functions of movementCerebellumThe ___ is located below the cerebral cortex which is located under the foreheadSub cortexThe ____ is responsible for producing emotion and motivated behaviorLimbic systemThe ___ is: -the middle layer of the brain that wraps around the thalamus -involved in feelings of pleasure, pain, fear, and rageLimbic systemAn inability to identify seen objectsVisual agnosiaAn inability to perceive familiar facesFacial agnosiaThe medulla, Pons, reticular formation, and the thalamus make up what?Brain stemThe amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus are part of what?Limbic systemThe ____ is responsible for producing emotions and motivated behaviorLimbic systemWhat controls the motor cortex?Broca's areaWhat transforms words that are read into auditory code?Angular GyrusWhere is the Broca's area located?Left frontal lobeWhere is the wernickes area located?Temporal lobeWhat area directs muscle movements that's important for speech productionBroca's areaWhat area controls receptive languages?Wernickes areaThis type of brain scan uses a strong magnetic field to produce an image of the body's interior. It also more detailed images than CT scansMRIThis scan reveals the locations of strokes, injuries, tumors, and other brain disorders. It is a specialized type of x-ray that are taken from different angles in order to form the imageCTThis type of brain scan measures waves of electrical activity that are produced near the surface of the brainEEGThis type of scan reveals that very specific brain areas are active when you speak, think, or hearPET