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72 terms

AP Biology Test: The Chemistry of Life

know these terms for the AP Biology test.
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elements
substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
trace elements
elements that are required by an organism in small quantities
atom
the smallest unit of an element that retains its characteristic properties
protons
positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom
neutrons
uncharged particles in the nucleus of an atom
nucleus
the core of an atom
electrons
negatively charged particles that spin around the nucleus of an atom
isotopes
atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
compound
when two or more different types of atoms are combined in a fixed ration
chemical reaction
when elements combine to form a substance with different properties
chemical bonds
how atoms of a compound are held together
ionic bond
formed between two atoms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to the other
covalent bond
when electrons are shared between atoms
nonpolar covalent
if electrons are shared equally between atoms
polar covalent
if electrons are shared unequally between atoms
polar
molecules wit a partially positive charge and a partially negative charge
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bonds that form when a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
adhesion
water molecules like to stick to other substances
cohesion
water molecules have tendency to stick together
surface tension
water molecules have a tendency to stick together making it difficult to break the surface of water
capillary action
water moves up plant vessels do to cohesion
heat capacity
the ability of a substance to store heat (the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a substance by 1 degree)
acidic
a substance that contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
basic/ alkaline
a substance that contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
neutral
pH of 7. equal concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions
organic compounds
molecules with a carbon skeleton
inorganic compounds
molecules that do not contain carbon atoms
carbon
a versatile atom with the ability to bind to other atoms as well as atoms of its same kind
carbohydrates
organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
monosaccharide
a carbohydrate with one sugar molecule
disaccharide
a carbohydrate with two sugar molecules
polysaccharide
a carbohydrate with many sugar molecules
glucose
a six-carbon monosaccharide with the chemical formula C6H12O6. plants produce it and cells break it down
fructose
a six-carbon monosaccharied with the chemical formula C6H12O6, a common sugar in fruits
glycosidic bond
the linking of two glucose molecules by removing a water molecule
dehydration synthesis/condensation
taking away a water molecule to make a bond between two atoms
hydrolysis
adding a water molecule to break up two atoms
polymer
a molecule with repeating subunits of the same general type
starch
a polysaccharide that plants use to stockpile alpha-glucose
plastids
structures made of starch in plants
cellulose
a polysacchardie made up of beta-glucose that lends structural support to the cell wall in plants
glycogen
a polysaccharide that allows animals to store glucose molecules in the liver and muscle cells
amino acids
organic molecules that serve as the building blocks of proteins
R group/side chain
the part of an amino acid that differentiates it from other amino acids
functional groups
distinctive groups of atoms that play a large role in determining the chemical behavior of the compound they are a part of
dipeptide
when two amino acids join
peptide bond
the bond between two amino acids by dehydration synthesis
polypeptide
a group of amino acids joined together in a string
protein
forms when a polypeptide chain twists and folds on itself to form a three-dimensional structure
lipids
molecules consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms not in a 1:2:1 ratio, fats, oils, and steroids
neutral fats
consists of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol
ester linkage
the forming of a triglyceride by each of the carboxyl groups of three fatty acids reacting with one of the three hydroyl groups of glycerol by dehydration synthesis
saturated
a fatty acid that has a single covalent bond between each pair of carbon atoms
unsaturated
a fatty acid with adjacent carbons joined by double bonds instead of single bonds
polyunsaturated
a fatty acid with many double bonds within the fatty acid
phospholipids
lipids that contain two fatty acid tails and one negatively charged phosphate head
hydrophobic
water hating
hydrophilic
water loving
amphipathic
a molecule (like a phospholipid) that has a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region
steroid
a lipid with a basic structure of four linked carbon rings
fats
a lipid with a long hydrocarbon chain and a carboxyl group at the end, tend to be solid at room temperature and saturated
oils
a lipid with a long hydrocarbon chain and a carboxyl group at the end, tend to be liquid at room temperature and unsaturated
glycerol
the head of a triglyceride
nucleic acids
molecules made up of simple units of nucleotides and contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
nucleotides
simple units that make up nucleic acids, DNA and RNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acids)
contains the hereditary blueprints of all life
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
essential molecule in protein synthesis
Oparin and Haldane
scientists that proposed the primitive atmosphere contained methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water that combined in a chemical reaction that created organisms
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
scientists that simulated a primitive atmosphere and proved that life could've developed from nonliving matter
heterotrophes
living organisms that rely on organic molecules for food
autotrophs (or producers)
organisms that make their own food
heterotroph hypothesis
the theory that the earliest life forms relied on other organic molecules for energy