History 109 Final Exam
Terms in this set (82)
a term that referred to President Theodore Roosevelt's policy of prosecuting monopolies, or "trusts" that violated federal antitrust laws. The trust-busting policy marked a major departure from previous administration policies, which had generally failed to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, and added momentum to the progressive reform movements of the early 1900s.
28th President, from 1913-1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, running against former President Progressive Party candidate Theodore Roosevelt, Wilson was elected President as a Democrat in 1912. Narrowly re-elected in 1916, he had full control of American entry into WWI, and his second term centered on WWI and the subsequent treaty negotiations in Paris.
31st President, secretary of commerce under Harding and Coolidge, President 1929-1933, millionaire believed in small enterprise, food administration, fed hungry and needy, organized radio and airline industries, encouraged creation and expansion of national trade associations.
the nickname given to Dwight D. Eisenhower as a teenager, failed to provide moral leadership, he called for American's to abide by the law, but he made it clear that he found the whole civil rights issue distasteful. He sent federal troops to the city of Little Rock Central High School during the court-ordered integration.
Northern Securities Case
created by financier JP Morgan, this "holding company" owned the stock and directed the affairs of three major western railroads. It monopolized transportation between the Great Lakes and the Pacific. In 104, the Supreme Court ordered Northern Securities dissolved, a major victory for the antitrust movement. The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt, one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor.
a German U-boat sank a British liner, briefly the world's largest ship. This created a diplomatic crisis and public outrage at the loss of 128 Americans. Germany agreed to pay reparations, and the US waited two more years to enter WWI.
War Industries Board, a US government agency established on July 28,1917, during WWI, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted psychological testing to help people find the right jobs.
National Recovery Administration, established by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, it was the centerpiece of Roosevelt's plan for combating the Depression. Would work with groups of business leaders to establish industry codes that set standards for output, prices, and working conditions.
Office of Economic Opportunity created by R. Sargent Shriver who also served as its first director; the OEO administered all programs such as VISTA, Job Corps, Community Action Program, and Head Start. It was established in 1964, but quickly became a target of both left wing and right-wing critics of the War on Poverty.
In the Treaty of Versailles, creation of League of Nations, part that the US says they cannot ratify, they don't want other people to tell us what to do with our troops only our president can do that.
representatives of 62 nations in 1928 signed the pact to outlaw war.
Nisei is a Japanese language term used for the first Japanese people to migrate from their country. Issei is term used for the children that are born from parents who migrated from their country; Late 1800s and early 1900s.
the policy of President Truman, as advocated in his address to Congress on March 12, 1947, to provide military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey and by extension, to any country threatened by Communism or any totalitarian ideology.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
officially the Southwest Asia resolution, was a joint resolution passed by the US congress on August 7th, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.
surprise attack by the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese during the Vietnamese New Year of 1968; turned American public opinion strongly against the war in Vietnam.
passed over president Harry Truman's veto, the law contained a number of provisions to weaken labor unions, including the banning of closed shops 1947.
The Rosenberg Case
Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg and Julius Rosenberg were US citizens convicted of conspiracy to commit during a time of war, and were executed. Their charges were related to the passing of information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union. Trial began in March of 1951.
Ferdinando Nicola Sacco and Bartolommeo Vanzetti were suspected anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920-armed robbery of a shoe factory in Massachusetts. After a controversial trial the two Italian immigrants were executed on August 23, 1927.
a make of a car that was planned, developed and made by Ford during 1958, 1959, and 1960 model years. With the Edsel, Ford had expected to make significant inroads into the market share of both General Motors and Chrysler and close the gap between itself and GM in the domestic American Automotive market. But contrary to the projections, the Edsel never gained popularity with contemporary American car buyers and sold poorly. Ford lost millions of dollars on the Edsel development.
a rock festival in upstate New York, took place in 1969 and brought together hundreds of thousands of young people to celebrate their alternative lifestyle and independence from adult authority.
Federal Home Association, 1932, offered aid to homeowners threatened with foreclosure. Signed off by Herbert Hoover.
existed from the 1950s-1980s, it was promoted by the US government, and speculated that if one state in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino theory was used by successive US administrations during the Cold War to justify the need for American intervention around the world.
an African American Muslim minister and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. Detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Sparked by Rosa Park's arrest on December 1, 1955, for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger, a successful yearlong boycott protesting segregation on city buses; led by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.
the last major politico-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of Berlin, and post WWII Germany. The USSR provoked the Berlin Crisis with an ultimatum demanding the withdrawal of Western armed forces from West Berlin—culminating with the City's partition with the East German erection of the berlin wall.
low cost, mass produced developments of suburban tract housing built by William Levitt after WWII on Long Island and elsewhere.
Buying on Margin
meant that you would only have to put down a small percentage of money (10%) and the broker would cover the rest. 1920s and so on, One cause of the depression.
Brown vs. Board of Education
a landmark US Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy vs. Ferguson decision of 1896. May of 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated, "Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." This ruling paved the way for integration and was a major victory for the civil rights movement.
26th president, leader of the Republican Party and founder of the Progressive Party of 1912. Youngest president ever, won the Nobel peace prize.
Warren G. Harding
29th President, the compromise candidate in the 1920 election, when he promised the nation a return to "normalcy" in the form of a strong economy, independent of foreign influence. Harding and the Republican Party had desired to move away from progressivism that dominated the early 20th century.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
aka FDR, 32nd President, 1933-1945. He was a central figure in the world events during the mid-20th century, leading the US during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war. A dominant leader of the Democratic Party and the only American president elected to more than two terms, he built a New Deal Coalition that realigned American politics after 1932, as his domestic policies defined American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century.
Lyndon B. Johnson
JFK's successor, completed JFK's term and was elected president in his own right, winning by a large margin in the 1964 election. He was greatly supported by the Democratic Party and he was responsible for designing the "Great Society" legislation that included laws that upheld civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicare, Medicaid, environmental protection, aid to education, and his "War on Poverty."
Plessy vs. Ferguson
US Supreme Court decision supporting the legality of Jim Crow laws that permitted or required "separate but equal" facilities for blacks and whites
battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor on February 15th, 1898, resulting in 266 deaths; the American public, assuming that the Spanish had mined the ship, clamored for war, and the Spanish-American War was declared two months later.
civilian conservation corps in March 1933, congress est. which set up unemployed young men to work on projects like forest preservation, flood control, and the improvement of national parks and wildlife preserves. More than 3 million people had passed through the CCC camps, where they got government wages $30 per month.
Agricultural Adjustment Act, authorized the federal government to try to raise farm prices by setting production quotas for major crops and paying farmers not to plant more. 1930s.
Tennessee Valley Authority, another product of the 100 Days, built a series of dams to prevent floods and deforestation along the Tennessee River and to provide cheap electric power for homes and factories in a seven state region where many families still lived in isolated log cabins
Leaders of nine world powers met in 1921-1922 to discuss the naval race; resulting treaties limited to a specific ratio the carrier and battleship tonnage of each nation (Five Power Naval Treaty) formally ratified the Open Door to China (Nine Power Treaty) and agreed to respect each other's Pacific territories (Four-Power Treaty)
Cash and Carry Laws
a policy requested by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt at a special session of the US Congress on Sept. 21, 1939. It replaced Neutrality Acts—it allowed the sale of material to belligerents, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash, assuming all risk in transportation. Only pertained to materials that could not be used in war efforts. Purpose was to hold neutrality between the US and European countries while still giving aid to Britain.
battles between angry blacks and predominantly white police—summer of 1967, urban uprisings left 43 dead in Detroit, where entire blocks went up in flames and property damage ran into the hundreds of millions of dollars. The violence led Johnson to appoint a commission headed by Illinois governor Otto Kerner to study the causes of urban rioting. Released in 1968, the Kerner Report blamed the violence on "segregation and poverty" and offered a powerful indictment of "white racism" but the report failed to offer any clear proposals for change.
(North Atlantic Treaty) Alliance founded in 1949 by ten western European Nations, the US, and Canada to deter Soviet expansion in Europe.
Army of the Republic of Vietnam (December 30, 1955) was the ground forces branch of the Republic of Vietnam's Military Forces, the official military of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), which existed from 1955 until the fall of Saigon in 1975. It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties (killed and wounded). Early on the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front, formed to oppose the Diem administration. JFK sent advisors and a great deal of financial support to aid the ARVN in combating the insurgents.
General U.S. strategy in the Cold War that called for containing Soviet expansion; originally devised by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan.
Joseph R. McCarthy
had won election to the Senate in 1946, partly on the basis of a fictional war record (he falsely claimed to have flown combat missions in the Pacific). In 1950 McCarthy announced that he had a list of 205 communist working for the State Department. The charge was preposterous, the numbers constantly changed, and McCarthy never identified a single person guilty of genuine disloyalty.
(House Un-American Activities Committee) 1947, launched a series of hearings about communist influence in Hollywood. Calling well-known screen writes, directors, and actors to appear before the committee ensured it a wave of national publicity, which its members relished. But ten "unfriendly witnesses" refused to answer the committee's questions about their political beliefs or to "name names" -the committee charged the Hollywood Ten, who included prominent screenwriters, with contempt of Congress, and they served jail terms of six months to a year. Hollywood studios blacklisted them along with more than 200 others who were accused of communist sympathies or who refused to name names.
Treaty of Versailles
established the League of Nations, it was a harsh document that all but guaranteed future conflict in Europe. Redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. The Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires ceased to exist, and Germany and Russia were reduced in size. A group of new states emerged in Eastern Europe, embodying the principle of self-determination, one of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points.
Washington office and apartment complex that lent its name to the 1972-1974 scandal of the Nixon administration; when his knowledge of the break-in at the Watergate and subsequent cover-up was revealed, Nixon resigned the presidency under threat of impeachment.
a polio vaccine used throughout the world to combat polio, first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus.
"The Other America"
Michael Harrington's 1962 book revealed that 40 to 50 million Americans lived in poverty.
Rosenberg Fund For Children to help children whose parents are targeted by activists in the US and can no longer support their families, non profit, started in 1990.
the longest, most furious battle of the French Expeditionary Corps in the Far East. 170 days of confrontation 57 days of hell. 1954. The first time that a non-European colonial independence movement had evolved through all the stages from guerrilla bands to a conventionally organized and equipped army able to defeat a modern western occupier in pitched battle.
by the end of the 1950s, nearly nine of ten American families owned a TV set. TV replaced newspapers as the most common source of information about public events, and TV watching became the nations leading leisure activity. TV changed America's eating habits and it provided Americans of all regions backgrounds with a common cultural experience. TV avoided controversy and projected a bland image of middle-class life, also became the most effective advertising medium ever invented.
BEF, bonus expeditionary force—called by organizers, bonus army—called by media. An assemblage of some 43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and affiliated groups, who gathered in DC in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand early cash-payment redemption of their service certificates.
1957, governor of Arkansas used the National Guard to prevent the court-ordered integration of Little Rock's Central High School; Eisenhower dispatched federal troops to the city.
testified that the movie industry harbored numerous communists. 1980 election of him launched the Reagan Revolution, which completed the transformation of freedom from the rallying cry of the left to a possession of the right.
1923-1929, succeeded after death of Harding, popular got credit for booming economy, tight budget, running a surplus, accelerated tax cutting, restored honesty to government.
Harry S. Truman
democrat, Truman beat out Dewey by 303 to 189 electoral votes, one of the greatest upsets in American political history. 1948.
Richard M. Nixon
a young congressman from California and a member of HUAC, achieved national prominence because of his dogged pursuit of Hiss.
Booker T. Washington
late 19th century, emphasized that obtaining farms or skilled jobs was far more important to African Americans emerging from slavery than the rights of citizenship urged blacks not to try and combat segregation.
from German foreign secretary to the German minister in Mexico, February 1917, instructing him to offer to recover Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona for Mexico if it would fight the US to divert attention from Germany in the event that the US joined the war.
(Works Progress Administration) the largest and most ambitious New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people to carry out public works projects like the construction of public buildings and roads.
Office of Price Administration, FDR created during WWII federal agency to regulate the allocation of labor, control the shipping industry, establish manufacturing quotas, and fix wages, prices, and rents. Established to prevent wartime inflation. 1941.
congress of industrial organization, aimed at nothing less than to secure "economic freedom and industrial democracy" for American workers—a fair share in wealth produced by their labor, and a voice in determining the conditions under which they worked.
treaty among the major nations that had won WWI, agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction. Negotiation: the scrapping of existing, or planned, capital ships to give a 5:5:3 ratio of tonnage between the US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy.
1941 permitted the US to lend or lease arms and other supplies to the allies, signifying increasing likelihood of American involvement in WWII.
US program for the reconstruction of post-WWII Europe through massive aid to former enemy nations as well as allies; proposed by General George C. Marshall in 1947.
1965, a town in central Vietnam, operation rolling thunder. Strategically important during the Vietnam War because it was the primary terminus of the military supply logistics corridor and was the main center of defense of the entire highland region of the Republic of Vietnam.
rifle, adapted for semi-automatic, three-round burst, and full automatic fie. Entered the US Army service ad was deployed for jungle warfare operations in South Vietnam in 1963, becoming the US Military's standard service rifle of the Vietnam War by 1969.
the expansion of war. This occurred during the war in 1965-68 after President Johnson won the election in 1964. More money was encouraged in order to help the troops. The soldiers had gone to Vietnam to advise and prop up the South Vietnamese government and military to prep them for war.
Attorney General's List
a list drawn up on April 3, 1947, at the request of the US attorney general Tom Clark. The list was intended to be a compilation of organizations seen "rebellious" by the US government. Among those were: alleged Communists fronts, the KKK, and the Nazi party.
an American lawyer, government official, author, and lecturer. He was involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a US State Department and UN official. Hiss was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950.
League of Nations
was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the first WW. It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace, part of The Treaty of Versailles.
a 1954 American drama film set during WWII, produced by Stanley Kramer, based on the 1951 Pulitzer Prize winning novel by Herman Wouk. The film depicts a mutiny aboard a fictitious WWII US Navy destroyer minesweeper, the USS Caine, and the subsequent court martial of two officers.
place in SF, center of the 60s youth counterculture.
an American white supremacist organization formed on July 11, 1954. Had about 60,000 members, mostly in the South, the group was well known for its opposition to racial integration during the 1950s and 1960s, when it retaliated with economic boycotts and other strong intimidation against black activists, including depriving them of jobs; WCC (white citizens council).
term coined by President Lyndon B. Johnson in his 1965 State of the Union, addressed problems of voting rights, poverty, diseases, education, immigration, and the environment.
word coined by future president Warren G. Harding as part of a 1920 campaign speech—"not nostrums, but normalcy"—signifying public exhaustion with Woodrow Wilson's internationalism and domestic reforms.
strategic arms limitation talks, under way since 1969, froze each country's arsenal of intercontinental missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
(With Inflation Now, WIN) was an attempt to spur a grassroots movement to combat inflation, by encouraging personal savings and disciplined spending habits in combination with public measures, urged by President Ford. People who supported the mandatory and voluntary measures were encouraged to wear WIN buttons, perhaps in hope of evoking in peacetime the kind of solidarity and voluntarism symbolized by the V-Campaign during WWII.
General of the Army was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army who was Chief of Staff of the US army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during WWII.
Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the Presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and by breaking up monopolies, give small business freedom to compete.
an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. King has become a national icon in the history of American progressivism. King was assassinated on April 4, 1968 in Memphis Tennessee.