Chapter 5: Social Structure, Social Groups, and Social Organizations
Terms in this set (73)
defined as two or more persons who interact over appreciable amount of time
Society is organized in a way that makes human behavior and relationships predictable. Human behavior is socially patterned.
The socially defined position an individual occupies. Exists independently from the people who occupy them.
Obtained involuntarily or without effort on the part of an individual. Can be acquired at birth-- age, race, or sex
Those you choose voluntarily or obtain through effort of ability. -- husband, athlete, coach, parent, deviant
The combination of all the statuses any individuals holds at a given time.
A particular status in one's status set that takes priority over the others. 2. Often, societies determine which status becomes your master status.
The social expectations or behaviors associated with a particular status. A set of expectations and behaviors associated with your status in a given group or society.
Multiple roles that are attached to individual statuses. Learned through the socialization process. 2. Learning what to expect from others who occupy given statuses and what behaviors are appropriate for our own statuses are basic aspects of life as a social being. We learn to expect different behaviors from persons who occupy different statuses.
The expectations associated with a given status that are based on what society suggests or dictates. 2. Describes what society suggests that we should do.
The way expectations for behavior are perceived or defined, which may differ considerably from what is prescribed or actually done.
The actual behavior of a person in a particular role, in contrast to the way that person is expected to behave
A situation in which the expectations associated with a particular social status are unclear. 2. Results from uncertainty over the expectation of a given role.
A situation that occurs when differing and incompatible roles are associated with the same status. 2. Single role overload or from contradictory demands placed on a given status. Despite our best efforts, the expectations may exceed the time and energy we have available to fulfill them. 3. Results from a role overload or the inability to carry out or live up to the expectations of a given status.
A situation that exists when differing expectations are associated with the same role or when two or more of an individual's role have differing expectations. 2. When the demands or expectations associated with two or more statuses interfere with each other or are incompatible. 3. Arises from the need to conform to incompatible expectations (time and energy or values) of the same or differing roles.
Sets of contrasting role expectations regarding judgement, emotions, depth of the relationship, self or collective focus and the extent to which ascribed or achieved statuses guide the relationship. 2. Sets of contrasting expectations that pertain to every role we enact in our lives.
Universalism versus Particularism
A pattern variable that pertains to expectations about how we should judge or evaluate each other in role relationship. 2. This pattern variable pertains to criteria on which we judge each or evaluate each othe
Expected to evaluate each other based upon objective criteria.
Expected to be very partial (biased) in our judgement or evaluation of one another
Affective neutrality vs. affectivity (instrumentalism vs emotion)
A pattern variable that pertains to expectations about the extent which emotions are part of role relationships. 2. Pertains to the extent which expression of emotion should be part of a relationship.
Specificity vs. diffuseness
A pattern variable that pertains to expectations about the scope or breadth of role relationships. 2. Focuses on the depth, scope, or purpose of a role relationship.
Self-Orientation vs. Collective-Orientation
A pattern variable pertaining to whether or not we should be focused on our own self-interest or the interests of the group within role relationships.
Ascription vs. Achievement
A pattern variable that pertains to whether interactions within a role should be guided by the ascribed or the achieved status of those who are interacting in a particular relationship.
when individuals interact, they do so with the intent of receiving a reward, either extrinsic or intrinsic.
Occurs when individuals work to achieve some common goal.
When two or more individuals compete for a valued price
When one person or group attempts to control behaviors of another individual or group.
Use of intimidation, or the threat of force or violence, to control the actions of others.
A group formed by sociologists or statisticians in which members are unaware of belonging and have no social interaction or social organization.
A group of people who share a common characteristics but don't interact or have any social organization
Any collection of people together in one place that interact briefly and sporadically. 2. Consisting of a collection of people who are together in one place and sozialize very little. 3. Unstructured. Members of it need not to converse, but may do so, they need not to know one another
Associational (Or organizational) group
A group of people who join together to pursue a common interest in a organized, formally structured way.
A group in which people physically or socially interact. 2. Membership in this group involves the following (a) some type of interaction (b) a sense of belonging or membership (c) shared interests or agreement on values, norms, and goals (d) a structure-- that is, definable, recognizable arrangement of parts. 3. Important because they provide us with a social identity, serve as a key to understanding social behavior, link the self with a larger society, and help us understand social structure and societal organization.
Primary Group (coined by Charles H. Cooley)
A small, informal group of people who interact in a personal, direct, and intimate way. Most important to shaping human personality. Person-oriented.
A group in which the members interact impersonally, have few emotional ties, and come together for a specific, practical purpose. Interactions in this group are more formal. Goal-oriented
A social group to which people feel they belong and with which they share a consciousness of kind
A group of which people feel they do not belong, with which they do not share consciousness of kind, and with which they feel little identity.
A type of group in which in- and out- groups draw their members. An informational primary group of people in who interact in personal, direct, and intimate way. 2. An informal primary group of people who share a similar status and who usually are of similar age. The unique factor in this group is equality.
A group with which people identify psychologically and to which they refer in evaluating themselves and their behavior. 2. They serve as sources of self-evaluation (comparative reference groups) and influence how we think and act and what we believe (normative reference group)
Negative Reference Group
Those in which we don't want to be identified, also serve as sources of self-evaluation.
Positive Reference Group
Important source of information about our performance in a given area.
Normative Reference Group
Serve not only as sources of current evaluation but also sources of aspiration and goal attainment
A feeling of being deprived, not because of objective conditions, but because of comparison to a reference group.
A type of leader that focuses on goals, directing activities, and helping make group decisions
Type of leader that focuses on resolving conflicts and creating group harmony and social cohesion.
A linkage or ties in a set of relationships.
Large social group deliberately organized to achieve certain specific, clearly stated goals.
A model of the hypothetical pure form of an existing entity
A hierarchal, formally organized structural arrangement of an organization based on the division of labor and authority.
Division Labor and Specialization
Each member or worker is trained for a specific job. Each member has carefully described responsibilities, and each job is designed to meet a specific need.
Organizations are run by a chain of command--a hierarchy of bosses and workers who are, in turn, the bosses of the workers. As indicated earlier, hierarchy is in a form of a pyramid. All officials are accountable to those at higher lever for their own responsibilities and for those of subordinates. The top of the chain of command is often a board of directors of company officers. Below this level are the middle-level managers, administrators, foremen, and department heads. The largest number of workers is at the bottom of the hierarchy.
Employees are expected to maintain integrity and to separate their personal lived from professional lives. A separation of person from organization.
Organizations select personnel on the basis of merit, using standardized criteria. Those who are hired are expected to have the specialized knowledge or skills necessary to perform their assigned task.
employees are expected to devote themselves completely to the business of the organization and to recognize that people work their way to the top. As one moves up in the hierarchy, job security and salaries improve.
The operation the organization is governed by a consistent set of rules that define the responsibilities of various positions, assure the coordination of task, and encourage the uniform treatment of clients. Written rules are used rather than informal communication; the larger the organization, the more rules are used to cover almost every possible situation. These rules are quite stable and comprehensive,a nd they can be readily learned and followed.
Iron Law of Oligarchy
The perspective that a formal organization would be dominated by a small self-serving group of people who achieve power and promote their own interests.
The situation that exists when the demands of discipline, conformity, and adherence to rules render people unable to perceive the end for which the rules were developed.
An organization people join because they share the organization's goals and values and voluntarily choose to support them
Socially defined position is known as a ___
Ascribed status involves one's ____
age, sex, race
Which of the following groups is created by sociologists or statisticians
Which of the following is considered to be a social group
A secondary group
A ______ group is an example of an informal primary group
The _____ leader directs group activities and decision-making, while the _____ leader resolves conflict and resolves group conflict and creates group harmony
The process of formalization includes which of the following?
The establishment of norms and roles by an organization and less attention to the details of relationships.
Weber found bureaucracies to have all except which of the following attributes?
Selection of personnel by political connections
Organizations that people join because of shared interests and values are called___
Which of the following is true regarding voluntary associations?
Membership turnover is high
T/F If a particular status is much more important to you than others, it is termed as your status set
T/F A categorical group is one in which people share a common characteristic
T/F Primary groups are uncommon in industrial societies
T/F Reference Groups serve as source of self-evaluation
T/F Formal organizations are groups deliberately constructed to reach certain specific, clearly stated goals.