A book by Betty Friedan that ignited the contemporary women's movement in 1963. Friedan hypothesized that women are victims of a false belief system that requires them to find identity and meaning in their lives through their husbands and children. She believed that such a system causes women to completely lose their identity in that of their family. Friedan specifically locates this system among post-World War II middle-class suburban communities. She suggests that men returning from war turned to their wives for mothering. At the same time, America's post-war economic boom had led to the development of new technologies that were supposed to make household work less difficult, but that often had the result of making women's work less meaningful and valuable.
allowed women's liberationists to identify the social patterns and ways of thinking that contributed to women's subordinate status in society.
Redstockings Manifesto (1969)
From a feminist group that applied Marxist theory to gender relations and argued that women were oppressed as a class. Like the Black Panthers, they argued that the solution to class oppression was a Marxist revolution. brought forth new views on gender equality. This era was launched by feminists, and included some students of the Students Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Radical feminists organized small "consciousness-raising" groups that combined investigations of gender discrimination in employment, education, and politics with analyses of gender oppression in private, familial, and sexual contexts. Like civil rights activists regarding race, these feminists were often frankly doubting the dominant society's willingness to grant women true equality. (Year)
National Organization for Women
Equal Opportunity Commission: Formed as the result of the Civil Rights Act, the EEOC was charged with investigating cases of employment discrimination. However, it was unprepared to deal with gender discrimination, which amounted to 25% of complaints during the first year.
________ ____________ ___ _____: As a result, woman's rights advocates founded ___ to pressure the EEOC to take gender discrimination seriously. ___ also sought to pass additional legislation to eliminate inequities in pay and education. NOW rejected the concept that men and women have different roles or responsibilities in society—women didn't have to choose between work and family.
Election of 1960
Senator John F. Kennedy campaigned against Vice President Richard Nixon in the ________ __ ____. The campaign centered on the leadership experience of the two candidates, U.S. position in the world, and poverty, education, and economic production at home. In 1960, the first presidential debates were televised, thus changing the dynamics of political campaigns during the remainder of the 20th century.
Viva Kennedy Clubs
In part because of the resistance to having a Catholic presidential candidate, Kennedy and Johnson sought to reach out to Mexican American voters. Dr. Hector Garcia and the GI Forum supported the ____ _______ _____ as did LULAC. The ____ _______ _____ are credited with giving JFK a victory in Texas, a major victory in one of the closest races in American history.
The "New Frontier"
JFK promoted an ambitious domestic agenda that sought to reinvigorate American education and expand the government safety net that protected Americans from poverty. ___ ________ Proposals included more federal aid for education, Medicare, public housing programs, increased social security benefits, and a higher minimum wage. Although he established the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, he hedged on efforts to enact civil rights legislation in order to keep the support of Southern Democrats.
Port Huron Statement (1962)
the manifesto of the American student activist movement Students for a Democratic Society (SDS).
"We are the people of this generation, bred in at least modest comfort, housed now in universities, looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit...As we grew, our comfort was penetrated by events to troubling to miss...
The conventional moral terms of the age, the political moralities— "free world," "people's democracies"—reflect realities poorly if at all, and seem to function more as ruling myths than descriptive principles....
We would replace power rooted in possession, privilege, or circumstance by power and uniqueness rooted in love, reflectiveness, reason, and creativity. As a social system we seek the establishment of a democracy of individual participation [so] that the individual [can] share in those social decisions determining the quality and direction of his life...." (Year)
Great Society Programs
After being sworn in as president, Lyndon B. Johnson used the assassination as the political justification to push many of JFK's programs through Congress. These included the Civil Rights act and other reforms that became known as "_____ _______" programs.
The _____ _______ represented an extension of the promises of FDR's New Deal. The programs included civil rights legislation, health care for the elderly and the poor—Medicare and Medicaid—educational programs like student loans and Headstart, Immigration reform, support for the arts through PBS and the National Endowment for the Arts and the Humanities, and new programs to improve public housing and protect the environoment. All the programs expanded the power of the federal government. But, as a legislative process LBJ was remarkably successful. Of the 87 bills submitted to Congress, 84 became law.
Vietnam War (1945-1975)
had its roots in the nationalist struggle against foreign imperialists, whether the imperialists were Chinese, French, or American. Lasted for thirty years (1945-1975) and at least 20 million people died during the conflict. The United States was involved at some level during all of that time, either through providing military aid, advisors, or shaping international policy. Massive troop buildups began in 1965 and large numbers of troops remained "in country" until 1973, the highpoint at 543,000 in 1969. Over the 15 years of war, over 2 million men and women served in Vietnam. 47,244 were killed in action. There were 10,446 non-combat deaths, 153,329 were seriously wounded, and over 2400 POWs were unaccounted for in 1973. (Years)